formed in line of battle not more than 60 yards distant. The second and third lines, so far as I could observe from my position near the center of the latter, were lying down as ordered.
Nearly the whole of the first line in good order stood and fired some 30 or 40 rounds per man, when word came that the left of our division had been completely turned by the enemy, and the order was given by General Summer in person to change the position of the third line. He afterward indicated to me the point where the stand was to be made, where he wished to repel a force of the enemy already in our rear. The noise of musketry and artillery was so great that I judged more by the gestures of the general as to the disposition he wished me to make than by the orders that reached my ears.
The troops were hastily faced about, and moved toward the rear and right in considerable confusion, but at about 100 yards from the right of where the first line was engaged, and nearly perpendicular to the turnpike, a portion of General Gorman's brigade, with one regiment of Dana's brigade, was first halted in line, and by a sharp fire repulsed the enemy advancing at that point. On the left of the turnpike regiments of the second and third lines were rallied, facing in the same direction toward Sharpsburg, and here they fired.
General Gorman's brigade was a second time established on the right of the turnpike and behind a stone wall, where they remained until drawn in to the left, taking a new position, in conjunction with the rest of the division. In the mean time Kirby's battery, commanded by Lieutenant Woodruff, was placed in position by General Sedgwick himself, and the enemy, receiving the combined musketry and artillery fire, were not only checked but driven back with great slaughter.
At this time-about 11 a. m., I should judge-General Sedgwick having been severely wounded, and having remained on the field for upward of an hour afterward, until he was so weak he could scarcely stand, turned over the command of the division to me.
The next hour was spent by officers of every grade in this division in rallying and reorganizing their commands, all having suffered more or less confusion in the change of position. Meanwhile the batteries of the Pennsylvania Reserves, located on a high plat of ground near the house of Joseph Poffenberger, opened fire, and checked several attempts of the enemy to establish batteries in front of our right and turn our right flank. In accordance with General Sumner's instructions, I detached one regiment (Twentieth Massachusetts, Colonel Lee) to support a battery to our front and left. Afterward the remaining portion of General Dana's brigade was sent still farther to the left, to assist in supporting batteries of Smith's division. The rest of the division I posted as strongly as possible near the house of Joseph Poffenberger, with instructions to hold this point at all hazards. This portion of the general line of battle was now very quiet, except an occasional attempt of the enemy to locate a battery on a high point beyond the turnpike, near a corn-field.
About an hour before sundown the enemy succeeded in getting four guns in position, and opened fire upon us, somewhat enfilading my lines. General Summer here ordered me to change front, placing the infantry in rear of the batteries, while the batteries, in a semicircular order, brought a concentrated fire form twenty-six pieces upon the enemy's guns just established, and in less than ten minutes the enemy was driven back, and did not appear again in this quarter. After sunset our front was thoroughly picketed, and the troops of this division slept upon their arms in order of battle at this point. The confusion of the