War of the Rebellion: Serial 023 Page 0666 KY., M. AND E. TENN., N. ALA., AND SW. VA. Chapter XXVIII

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sweep the shore of the Ohio, which might become necessary in case of an attack during a low stage of the river.

Having discussed the general line of defense, I will state that the works added to the defense since I took charge, September 6, have been eight batteries, put up entirely under the direction of Captain William E. Merrill, Corps of Engineers, my assistant, on the west side of the Licking River, and the erection of a battery on Saint John's Hill, the enlargement of the Shaler Battery, and the construction of Fort Whitlesey to Colonel Whittlesey, my assistant, on the east side of the Licking. I have also erected under my immediate supervision Battery McLean on Locust Hill for four heavy guns, and a breastwork (Battery Pike Harrison) for three field pieces immediately below Locust Hill on the line of defense. All the forts as well as nearly all the batteries have been provided with bomb-proof magazines (the most of them calculated for 200 rounds), which have been properly ventilated and furnished with doors and locks, and, where possible, with drains.

In addition to the defenses named, there have been dug on the west side of the Licking 4,60 miles of rifle pits, and on the east side 4,35 miles. These rifle pits were commenced by order of General Lew. Wallace by citizens pressed to labor before I took charge, and while some of them are exceptionable on account of their position, and should in a few instances be filled up, in the main they contribute very materially to the defense of the line.

A very important accessory to the works and adding very considerably to their strength is the military roads which have been constructed between them thus allowing the rapid concentration of artillery and infantry at any threatened point.

I must also add that many acres of timber have been felled, which was necessary both for the purpose of unmasking the enemy and obstructing his approach.

There yet remains something to be done to complete the works as they should be. On the east side of the Licking, Fort Whittlesey, which on account of the expectation of an immediate assault, was thrown up in a great hurry, and a large portion of it in the night, is deficient on the toward the south and west the proper thickness of parapet. This thickness, being only from 7 to 9 feet, should be increased about 6 feet, which could be readily done by using the earth from the interior and setting the revetment of the breast-height back as many feet, and making it of sod, lumber, or logs; or the earth could be taken from the ditch,which has not yet been made to the full width. A stockade, provided with loo-holes, should also be made on the north side of the work, as shown on the plan, to protect the troops passing from one fort to the other.

The Phil. Kearn Battery is an important battery on account of its being intermediate between Fort Whittlesey and the Shaler Battery and protecting a very considerable front; but at present it is entirely too small, and should be lengthened at either flank in the manner shown in the plan, and constructed for a field battery of six guns. The range not requiring guns of larger caliber than 12-pounders, the two 24- pounders now there ought to be removed to Fort Whittlesey.

The embrasures in the flanks of the Shaler Battery remain yet to be cut and formed in the parapet, and the two 32s in the advanced or old portion of the work should be removed to the new or more commanding position and field pieces at the proper time substituted in their stead. On the west side of the Licking the parapets of Fort Mitchel should be made thicker and what I have already pronounced as essential the