thropy than that of England toward the slaves of Jamaica. The Indians lived on the reserves and in the homes provided for them, expended their annuities devoured the Government provisions, pretended friendship with the whites, played at agriculture and civilization, and in the mean time committed robberies and murders innumerable on the citizens of the frontier.
Our new Government has attempted to follow out the same policy, and what has been the result? Why, that recently these Indians murdered the Government employes and left to join our enemies in Kansas, as have a large number of the Cherokees, Creeks, and Seminoles.
It was with sentiments toward the Indians, the natural growth of years of such acquaintance with them and their deeds as I have mentioned, that at the head of the Second Texas Mounted Rifles I marched into Arizona in 1861 to drive out the Federal troops, I found in that rich and beautiful country evidences of constant Indian depredations worse even than those inflicted on Texas and executed on a much larger scale. I found at Fort Davis the formidable Apache Indians. They had come in for the purpose of making a treaty. As Fort Bliss was threatened at the time by the Federal forces in Arizona I could not stop to make the treaty with them (as I was ordered to do by the commanding officers of the department), but had the head chief brought to Fort Bliss by stage and there made the desired treaty. I loaded him with presents and sent him back by stage to Fort Davis, he departing with abundant expressions of friendship. But he left the stage after stealing two pistols, and a few nights afterward the Indians of his tribe left Fort Davis, stealing all the horses they could get and killing a number of cattle. They were pursued by Lieutenant May, Company D, Second Texas Mounted Rifles, with 15 men, all of whom except one man were killed by the very Indians who had drawn rations from us for three months previously and who had never been unkindly treated in a single instance that I know of.
From this out outrages were committed frequently; the mails were robbed; in one or two instances the passengers were found hanging up by the heels, their heads within a few inches of a slow fire, and they thus horribly roasted to death. Others were found tied to the wheels of the coach, which had been burned. These Indians, 400 or 500 strong, then attacked the Pino Alto mines, and would have murdered everybody there but for a piece of artillery, sent there by my order in anticipation of such an assault. Several trains of emigrants were then attacked in the mountain passes and were murdered, the Indians robbing them of everything. More than 100 of our citizens were murdered by these Indians in the face of a treaty which they had broken without provocation.
Upon the arrival of General Sibley's brigade these Indians stole from his troops 100 head of horses and mules. Accompanied by many native-born citizens of Arizona and New Mexico I followed the robbers' trail, which led me to the town of Carretas, Chihuahua. I thought myself justifiable in killing the Indians and recovering the animals, the Mexican alcalde acknowledging that the Apaches habitually stole property from the whites in Arizona and run it into Mexico, and that his Government could not and did not afford him protection.
So soon as the Indians found that I was after them with a formidable force and determination to punish them severely they went to the mines which they had but a short time previously attacked, and with a flag of truce proposed to make a treaty. Then it was that I issued the order of exterminate them. I had just read an article published in the