completed before the 15th instant, and could even now yield some aid in an emergency. I regard them as absolutely indispensable to the successful defense of the harbor.
The Neck Battery on Morris Island was then visited, which was found incomplete, wanting at leaf two weeks' work to finish it according to plan, and needing a closed gorge to secure against surprise. It was erected to defend that approach to Fort Sumter. In addition a few rifled guns ought to be placed to bear on the Main Channel.
Subsequently I inspected a small work, Fort Ripley, now under construction on cribs in the bay, about midway between Fort Johnson and Castle Pinckney. It is nearly ready for its armament, five heavy guns in barbette, but must be protected outside to the high-water mark by rubbish before it can be relied on. A series of similar smaller works erected in the shallow water nearer to the mouth of the harbor would materially add to the strength of our defenses.
I did not visit Castle Pinckney, the armament of which is nine 24-pounders and one 24-pounder rifled guns. I am well acquainted with this work and regard it as nearly worthless at this juncture.
On the 17th of September, in company with Major-General Pemberton, Colonel Gonzales, and Lieutenant-Colonel Lay, I inspected the defensive lines on James Island from the Wappoo to Mellichamp's, a distance of about 3 miles. These lines consist of a system of forts, redoubts, redans, cremaillers, not very properly arranged and located, with the exception of Fort Pemberton, on the Stono, and some of the redoubts; and in my opinion a simpler system, one requiring a smaller force to hold and defend, might have been originally devised with advantage. However, this line ought to serve our purpose with a proper force of about 3 men for every 2 yards of development. Each redoubt and redan has at least one heavy gun in position. That part of the lines between Dill's Creek and the Wappoo will be completed in two weeks.
Fort Pemberton is a strong work, and has an armament of twenty guns of various calibers. There are two batteries on the Ashley River and the entrances of Dill's and Wappoo Creeks, but for want of guns the works are without armaments, except the battery at Lawton's, which has four 32-pounders in position, which, however, are of little use against any probable attack.
On the 18th of September, accompanied as on the previous day, I inspected Forts Sumter and Moultrie, which were found in fine order and condition, considering the repairs in progress at the latter work. The armament of Moultrie consists of thirty-eight guns of various calibers from 240 pounders to 8-inch columbiads, with a garrison of some 300 effective men. The armament of Sumter consists of seventy-nine guns of all calibers from 32-pounders 10-inch columbiads and seven 10-inch mortars. It has a garrison of about 350 effective men. The barracks are being cut down to protect them from the fire of the enemy.
The small steam-engine for making fresh water is in an exposed condition, and should either be removed to a safer place or be properly protected; the latter will probably be most convenient.
Battery Beauregard, across Sullivan's Island, in advance of Fort Moultrie, to defend the approach from the east, is armed with five guns. The work at the eastern extremity of the island, placed to defend the interior approach by water to the rear and west of Long Island, is a redoubt armed with eight guns (two 32-pounders and six small guns). I am informed by General Pemberton that all these works are sufficiently garrisoned.
My conclusions are as follows: That when the works contemplated