left under my command. We reached the camping ground in the neighborhood of the springs in the evening, whilst an artillery engagement at that place was going on with great spirit. Before reaching the camp some 5,000 troops-cavalry, infantry, and artillery-were crowded into a narrow space, delayed by the trains which blocked up the road, whilst the stray shot and shell falling in our midst showed we were, without the apparent knowledge of the enemy, within destructive range of his guns .
The next day we served with the brigade in reconnoitering in the neighborhood of the Springs. In the afternoon four companies of my regiment, under my command of Captain Bingham, were sent back to report to General Reno and assist in escorting his train. The remainder of the regiment proceeded with you late in the evening, as a part of your escort, toward Waterloo Bridge, and encamped some 2 miles from the springs.
The next morning we reached the hill a mile from the bridge, and then watched the movements of the enemy in his march from Fayetteville, some 5 miles distant, from daylight until noon. We then returned with the brigade to the Springs, taking with us the mountain howitzers. In driving out a party of the enemy from the Springs our howitzers attracted the fire from the enemy's battery across the river, whilst a shell from a howitzer set fire to the buildings at the Springs, a considerable portion of which was thereby destroyed. At 10 o'clock at night, with the brigade acting as rear guard, we proceeded to Warrenton, reaching that place about 2 o'clock in the morning, resting until daylight in the street, when we went into camp.
At 4 o'clock in the afternoon I was directed by Colonel Beardsley to report with the brigade to General Buford, on the road to Waterloo Bridge. We encamped with him that night, and the next morning, joined by Colonel Beardsley, we accompanied General Buford and his command to Salem and White Plains. At the former place some 50 prisoners were taken, who were sent back to Warrenton under charge of Lieutenant Wyatt, of my regiment. Here was discovered the important fact that a large force of the enemy under Jackson had passed through these villages and through Thoroughfare Gap toward Manassas Junction the day before our arrival, and that a larger force was then following him, and but a short distance from Salem. We returned Warrenton with the brigade, and again rested in the high road without forage for horses until daylight, the other troops of the corps having left Warrenton during the preceding day. The next morning we proceeded toward Manassas Junction.
As we approached Manassas in the evening we found from heavy firing on our left that some part of our army had engaged the enemy. We learned that you had proceeded in the direction of the battle ground, near which we came up with the corps, and remained there until morning. Early the next morning we furnished a detail of 50 men, being nearly all that could be provided with serviceable horses. The regiment then went into camp near the battle-field of the 29th.
Excepting the detail already mentioned, certain aides and orderlies serving with yourself and General Steinwehr, my command was not on duty during the day, and was not again ordered out until 5 o'clock in the evening of the 30th. The whole brigade was then formed to arrest the retreat of the straggling infantry, at that time an object of great concern, occasioned, as I knew, by the sudden shifting of the line of battle from the right to the center and left wing. Whilst my regiment was in line for this purpose a shot fell in the ranks of Company