War of the Rebellion: Serial 016 Page 0110 Chapter XXIV. OPERATIONS IN N. VA., W. VA., AND MD.

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turn to the left, making an elbow around a piece of woods. Through this wood there is a more direct road, which comes out exactly opposite the ford and joins the main road where the turn to the right is made. This road I have not been over. Seven miles from Culpeper, near the house of a Mr. Colvin, there are two branch roads - the one to the right leading to Mitchell's Station, distant 3 1/2 miles; the center one leading to Somerville, distant 3 miles. From this point to the ford would be the worst part of the road in wet weather. The distance to the ford by this road is 10 miles. The other principal road is by the way of Stevensburg, around the east side of Pony Mountain. The road from Culpeper to Stevensburg is now very good, with the exception of two or three places, where for a short distance (20 or 30 yards) the mud is knee-deep. The distance from Culpeper to Stevensburg is 7 miles. The road from Stevensburg to the ford is of the same character as the one first described - very rough, and places muddy, but at present practicable for artillery. From Stevensburg to the ford is 6 miles. The ford is a very good one, hard, sand, bottom, and when the river is settled not over knee-deep. To cross the ford if the water is high you go down the stream, keeping close to the bank, till you come opposite a large stump in the stream, then face toward the opposite bank, keeping, if anything, a little up. Accompanying is a sketch of the ford and the roads leading to it.*

Your obedient servant,

WM. S. COGSWELL,

Captain Company I, Fifth Connecticut Volunteers.

Brigadier General S. W. CRAWFORD,

Commanding First Brigade.

JULY 29, 1862.- Operations about Orange Court-House, Va.

Report of Lieutenant Colonel Joseph Karge, First New Jersey Cavalry.

ELM FARM, VA., July 29, 1862 - 5 p. m.

GENERAL: I have the honor to report that I reached this place at 1 p. m. without encountering any of the enemy. On my way hither I sent Captain Janeway, of Company L, with 60 men, to Rapidan Station, to scour the country and get all the information he could. He is to leave half of his men as picket on the fork of the road on his return to camp. Major Beaumont I sent with about 150 men onward to feel the enemy in the vicinity of Orange Court-House. I also dispatches another squadron as a support in case of emergency. Major Beaumont reported a little while ago that he had reached the Rapidan River, driven in the enemy's cavalry pickets, and is waiting for further orders. I directed him to exercise the greatest caution possible, and not to cross the river unless he wa sure of success, and by no means with more than one squadron, leaving the other on this side. From Captain Janeway I have heard nothing as yet. The road has been all the way good, and no difficulty can be experienced by transportation, except in very wet weather. I have put up with the rest of my command close to the banks of Robertson's River, holding myself in readiness for any emergency.

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* Omitted.

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