Answer. We were near the Warrenton pike.
Question by the COURT. What means did General McDowell take to ascertain the force present at that cannonading?
Answer. I have no particular recollection of any other means than that of his going out himself and making observations, which he did.
Question by the COURT. Do you not now know that Jackson's force had at that time approached during the preceding night or morning toward or onto the Warrenton pike from the neighborhood of Manassas?
Question by the COURT. Do you know where Jackson's forces were at the time of that cannonading?
Question by the COURT. Did General McDowell give any orders for sending any force against the enemy at the point from which that cannonading proceeded?
Answer. I do not know.
Question by the COURT. What means had General Pope to be informed that the enemy was threatening General McDowell from the course of the Warrenton pike except by information to be obtained or communicated by General McDowell himself?
Answer. I do not know.
Question by the COURT. Was it not the duty of General McDowell to have ascertained what was the force of the enemy then assailing him on the morning of the 28th and to have reported the facts to General Pope?
Answer. I can only give my opinion. It would depend upon circumstances. it would heave been proper to ascertain the force making the demonstration and then to report or communicate to General Pope it the magnitude of the force demanded it.
Question by the COURT. Assuming that Jackson's force had approached from Manassas to the neighborhood of the Warrenton pike near Groveton on the morning of the 28th and General McDowell had then proceeded in that direction against him, in your opinion would not Jackson have been defeated?
Answer. I can give no opinion; the result would depend on so many circumstances.
Question by the COURT. On the assumption contained in the last question as to the position of Jackson, and that the fact had been ascertained by General McDowell, ought not General McDowell to have proceeded against him instead of persisting in the march to Manassas?
Answer. I must say again that this must depend upon circumstances-on various things; on the orders received from General Pope; on the reliance he had on his own troops; on comparative number, &c.
Question by the COURT. Take for circumstances all the facts in your knowledge except as modified by the assumption as to Jackson's position, and state your opinion.
Answer. I cannot give an opinion that would be satisfactory to myself. I know nothing about Jackson's force or his numbers.
Question by the COURT. Did you not know from the communication of General Pope to General McDowell that Jackson had been driven
13 R R-VOL XII