War of the Rebellion: Serial 015 Page 0128 OPERATIONS IN N. VA., W. VA., AND MD. Chapter XXIV.

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upon examination of many of them we found that no one of them belonged to the corps of General Longstreet. These troops which were made prisoners come through Thoroughfare Gap on their way to Gainesville. The day before this happened, on the 27th, I received news by my scouting parties that General Longstreet was on his way, by Salem and White Plains, to Manassas (that leads by Thoroughfare Gap to Hopeville) [Hopewell], and that Jackson had already passed Thoroughfare Gap to Manassas. During the battle of the 29th General Longstreet was reported to me, at about 1 o'clock, on his march form Gainesville to the battle-field, which I reported to General Kearny. I thought that General Longstreet must have passed Thoroughfare Gap and Gainesville on the night of the 28th or morning of the 29th. I believe that on the 28th, in the morning, on division should have been posted so as to hinder General Longstreet to pass either Thoroughfare Gap or Hay Market, if it was too late to occupy the Gap.

Question by the COURT. What knowledge have you that General McDowell was aware of the approach of Longstreet? Did you communicate to him the facts which you had learned from your scouts on the 27th.

Answer. I communicated this fact to General McDowell the night of the 27th, at Gainesville, when he proposed to march to Salem. I said to him that Longstreet must be between Salem and Gainesville, and if we were marching to Sale, Longstreet and Jackson would unite and separate General Pope and our troops. Besides this, I received an order from General McDowell, at Warrenton, to send my whole cavalry force with General Bayard to Salem on and expedition. I gave the order to this effect to Colonel Beardsley, the commander of my cavalry, who was at Salem, ad when he returned to me on the 29th, during the battle, he said that Longstreet's forces were near Salem. I supposed, as it was natural, that General McDowell had received the report form the commander of the cavalry to which my cavalry was attached. On the same night of the 27th the question arose between General McDowell and myself what troops should stay against General Longstreet, and I left it with General McDowell to make his dispositions, which shows that General McDowell was aware of the approach of General Longstreet.

Question by the COURT. How far would it have been necessary to march a division to reach Thoroughfare Gap? By what route was it practicable to do so? What was the number of Longstreet's force?

Answer. Thoroughfare Gap is about 5 miles from Gainesville and 3 1/2 miles from Hay Market. The best road leads from Gainesville by Hay Market to the Gap; another road from Buckland Mills by Carter's Switch, leaving Hay Market to the right. I believe that General Longstreet had about 35,000 men-infantry, cavalry, and artillery.

Question by the COURT. Where were the divisions, and what ones, which could have been sent to Thoroughfare Gap?

Answer. My whole corps could have been sent there, and General McDowell's corps was behind me at Buckland Mills. It is 3 miles from Buckland Mills to Gainesville and 5 miles by Hay Market. The direct route from Buckland Mills by Carter's Switch to Thoroughfare Gap must be shorter. The road from Gainesville to Thoroughfare Gap is excellent.

Question by the COURT. At that time what was the numerical strength of your corps and of the part of the army of General McDowell then with him? Where was Jackson at that time and what was the numerical strength of his command?

Answer. My corps was about 11,000 men strong, with one brigade of cavalry and nine batteries of artillery included. I did not know at that time what troops belonged to General McDowell's corps and do not know it exactly now.

I saw, when I returned from Gainesville that night, the Pennsylvania Reserves at Buckland Mills. I also learned that General King's division was there. I think that General McDowell's corps, then with him, was at least 15,000 men. It was night, and I could not see very well what troops were there. Jackson must have been at that time near Manassas Junction and beyond, toward Kettle Run; so at least I thought at that time. From his stragglers and other sources i learned that he had with him his own division, that of Ewell, and that of General A. P. Hill, amounting to about 40,000 men.

Question by the COURT. What number of troops would have suf-