instructions, by the correction of abuses on the spot when they came to his knowledge, entering into minutiae not infrequently himself, when other means-the usual means-did not effect the object desired.
Question by the COURT. How did the troops under General McDowell's command compare with the troops of the other corps which you have seen in respect to their instruction and discipline?
Answer. I have had no opportunity of making comparisons, except when a division, for instance, joined his corps from abroad and became part of his command. These I found invariably inferior in every respect, as far as I could judge, to his command. I mean by that his command before they joined.
Question by the COURT. Have you any knowledge that this treatment of his officers or men was the occasion of any complaint against him by them or any of them?
Answer. I cannot call to mind any cases at present.
Question by the COURT. Have you been present with him at engagements with the enemy; and, if so, state when and where? State fully.
Answer. I have, at the battle of Cedar mountain, on the 9th of August, I think; battle of Bull Run, on the 29th and 30th, I think they were, and three days' engagement, more or less, at the Rappahannock Station some time in August.
Question by the COURT. Have you knowledge of any complaints made by his officers or men as to his conduct in battle; and without now stating what the complaints, if any, were, name the persons making them?
Answer. Not of my own knowledge.
QQuestion by the COURT. Have you knowledge of any complaints made by his officers or men as the his arrangement of troops in battle; and without now stating what the complaints, if any, were, name the persons making them?
Answer. No, sir.
Question by the COURT. Have you seen anything in his conduct or management of this troops at such times showing indecision, indiscretion, or want of proper qualities for the command of a division, corps, or department? If so, state fully and particularly what you have seen.
Answer. I have not.
Question by the COURT. Have you known of any occasion of engagement with the enemy by the troops of any other commander or portions of his command when he could have co-operated with them or rendered assistance and failed to do so? If you answer yes, state the occasion and the reasons for such omission?
Answer. I answer no.
Question by the COURT. How long since you entered the military service of the country and during how many years have you served?
Answer. I entered the Military Academy in 1829 and remained in the service till 1846, and resigned. I re-entered the service at the beginning of this war; was reappointed in the service in May, 1861, and have been in the Army since that time.
The court took a recess of 10 minutes.
Question by the COURT. State what orders were given, if any, discriminating between loyal and rebel property-holders in respect to the seizure of supplies for the army, and in respect to the detail of guards and other measures for the protection of persons and property.