for duty. I was also joined by Lieutenant Elder with his battery, K, First Artillery.
When the battle of June 30 commenced, at about 1 p.m., I assumed command of all the artillery in the corps [nine batteries], and placed it in battery covering the debouches, and about 1,000 yards distant from the woods skirting the Richmond road, General Palmer's brigade being drawn up in line of battle on my left. This disposition was only temporary, for about 2.30 p.m. I was ordered by the corps commander to form a line of battle in a large wheat field perpendicular to the river, with the right resting on the edge of a woods which skirted the field running parallel with the river. In this line I placed half of the artillery, forming a reserve line parallel to the first and about 1,000 yards retired with the other half. I had ten batteries; five in position [viz: Flood's, Brady's, McCarthy's, and Miller's Pennsylvania, and McKnight's battery, M, Fifth Regular], covering the woods, beyond which the fight was raging; and five batteries in reserve, viz: Regan's, Fitch's, and Mink's New York [the latter three guns], of Peck's division, and Elder's regular battery; also Battery G, Fourth U. S. Artillery, commanded by Lieutenant Morgan; which last-named battery reported at about 4.30 p.m., whence I know not. There were twenty-one guns in position and twenty-three in reserve. Thus matters remained until about 11 a.m. on the following day, July 1, 1862, when the general commanding the corps, becoming satisfied that the enemy was working around toward the right flank, gave minute instructions for a change of front of the artillery, for the better protection of that flank. The general's instructions were all faithfully executed. Timbers were slashed and guns posted, covering all the approaches to our position, to do which required all the artillery in the corps. At about 1 p.m. Morgan's regular battery was taken away by order of General McClellan, and an hour later Elder's regular battery was taken away by the same authority.
About 5 p.m. Miller's battery was sent for by General McClellan to take post in a small gap between Peck's and Slocum's divisions. I posted the battery myself in the position indicated by General McClellan's aide.
Night set in without an attack. At 1 a.m., July 2, 1862, I was called to the headquarters of the corps commander, and received directions for my guidance while maneuvering the artillery in the morning for the protection of the rear of the army, which directions were adhered to during the movements which followed; Miller's Pennsylvania battery being the last battery of this army to enter its present line. My command all arrived safely without loss.
I inclose with this brief reports of all the commanders who acted in an independent capacity during the whole movement.
I beg leave to call the attention of the proper authority to those reports and to the indorsements which I have made in each case. I also desire to notice the excellent bearing and valuable services of Principal Musician Robert Hargreaves, First Pennsylvania Artillery, whose prompt and intelligent conveyance of my orders contributed greatly to the harmonious movement of the large mass of artillery temporarily under my command. He is qualified for a better position. The officers and men were cheerful throughout the entire movement, always cheerfully doing what was required of them; and having the fullest confidence in their leaders, always determined to believe that the movement what it really was -a strategic movement and not a retreat. Individual