transported on steamers, convoyed by iron-clad gunboats, under the command of General Grant, to Pittsburg, while an army under General Buell, commanding the remaining forces of the United States in the West, moved from Nashville through Columbia, by land, to effect a junction with General Grant.
General Johnston, having received information of these movements, resolved at once to defeat or dislodge General Grant before the arrival of the forces under General Buell. On Thursday, April 3, the Army of the Mississippi was ordered to advance from Corinth toward Shiloh, a little country church near Pittsburg, around which the forces of General Grant were encamped.
The Third Corps, then under my command, marched in advance by the Bark road toward Shiloh, and reached Mickey's house, about 16 miles from Corinth and 8 from Pittsburg, on the morning of April 4. A portion of Brigadier-General Cleburne's command in the afternoon engaged the cavalry of the enemy and repulsed it promptly. We took some prisoners and bivouacked for the night.
It was the purpose of the general to continue the movement at 3 a.m. the succeeding morning, but torrents of rain having fallen, a night march over the swollen streams and flooded ravines became impracticable. The advance was suspended until dawn, when my command again marched forward.
About 10 o'clock on Saturday morning, April 5, my corps reached the outposts and developed the line of the enemy. It was immediately deployed in line of battle about a mile and a half east off Shiloh Church, where Lick Creek and Owl Creek approach most nearly. The right was extended toward Lick Creek and the left rested near Owl Creek, which streams at that point are rather more than 3 miles apart.
The Tennessee River runs nearly due north from above Lick Creek to the mouth of Owl Creek, which creeks, after flowing nearly parallel to each other, empty into the river about 4 miles apart. Pittsburg is situated near the foot of the hills, and nearly midway between the mouths of the two creeks, on the left bank of the river. This bank of the Tennessee is a range of bold, wooded hills, bordering the stream closely, which, as they recede from the river, gradually diminish, the slopes falling away from a ridge on the south toward Lick Creek and on the north toward Owl Creek. From Mickey's, 8 miles west from Pittsburg, rolling uplands, partially cultivated or abandoned, characterize the country from that point to the river.
The storm of the preceding night rendered the roads so miry that the different commands were not collected at Shiloh until 4 or 5 o'clock in the afternoon. This rendered it necessary to postpone the attack until the next day.
Some of the troops having failed to provide themselves with provisions, or having improvidently consumed or lost them, the propriety of returning to Corinth without attacking the enemy was urged and considered, but the commanding general determined, regardless of all objections, to force a battle the succeeding morning.
By the order of battle our troops were arranged in two parallel lines, the first, under my command, being composed of my corps, consisting of the brigades of Brigadier-Generals Hindman, Wood, and Cleburne, numbering 6,789 effective men, and the brigade of Brigadier-General Gladden, which was attached to my command to fill the interval between my right and Lick Creek. The second was composed of five