before it could be brought into position, owing to the rough nature of the ground and the want of roads, and I here take occasion to say that I cannot speak too highly of the energy, skill, and labor displayed by the men of this battery throughout the day in cutting their way through a thickly-wooded country over ravines and hills almost impassable to ordinary wagons.
After about an hour's hard fighting the enemy again retreated, leaving many of his dead on the field. About this time the gunboats from the river began to throw their shells among us, and we pressed rapidly forward in line of battle toward the center, where the battle seemed to be raging fiercely. We were soon met by an officer, stating that he belonged to General Crittenden's staff, and that he had been hotly engaged with the enemy and needed assistance. As near as I could judge of the position of affairs our troops were then in a line of battle running from south to north, and facing east, or a little north of east. My line was running from east to west, and facing north. Moving at a double-quick, over several ravines and hills, we came upon the enemy and attacked him on his flank. This was the fourth fight in which my brigade had been engaged during the day, and after a severe firing of some duration, finding the enemy stubbornly resisting, I rode back for General Jackson's brigade, which was lying down in reserve in my rear and to my left. I did not see General Jackson, but finding Colonel Wheeler, called upon him to take up the fight, which he did with promptness and vigor.
I sent a staff officer to command my brigade to lie down and rest until they received further orders, and then followed up General Jackson's brigade myself until I came upon Major-General Bragg, commanding in the thickest of the fight, to whom I reported my action. I had been there but a few minutes, however, when some of our troops were driven back in confusion, and General Bragg called out to "bring up Chalmers' brigade." I rode back immediately to where I had ordered my men to halt, and found that they had not understood the orders and had pressed on after the retreating foe. Riding rapidly after them, I reached them just after the enemy had raised the white flag and a number of the enemy had surrendered to the Ninth Mississippi, which was then some distance in advance of any other Confederate troops.
Colonel Shaw, of the Fourteenth Iowa Regiment, and a senior captain, commanding some companies of the Twenty-eighth Illinois Regiment, surrendered to Major F. E. Whitfield, and the colonel of the Eighteenth Missouri, with a portion of his command, surrendered to Lieutenant Donald McKenzie, Company K, Ninth Mississippi Regiment.
About a quarter of an hour after the surrender some of our troops, supposed to be of General Polk's division, made their appearance on the opposite side of the surrendered camps, and were with great difficulty prevented from firing upon the prisoners. The cavalry very soon arrived, and the prisoners were turned over to them and were carried to the rear.
It was then about 4 o'clock in the evening, and after distributing ammunition, we received orders from General Bragg to drive the enemy into the river. My brigade, together with that of Brigadier-General Jackson, filed to the right and formed facing the river and endeavored to press forward to the water's edge, but in attempting to mount the last ridge we were met by a fire from a whole line of batteries protected by infantry and assisted by shells from the gunboats. Our men struggled vainly to ascend the hill, which was very steep, making charge