Cruces, La Mesilla, and Franklin. Taking with him two companies of cavalry, he proceeded on down as far as Fort Quitman, Tex.; from there he dispatched a company of the First Cavalry as far as Fort Davis, distant from Fort Quitman - miles. The Texans had abandoned this post. One man, much reduced, was found dead, his body being pierced in many places with arrows. This man had evidently been left behind sick. The sick and wounded Texans left behind at Franklin were sent with an escort to San Antonio.
General Canby, at this time in command of the Department of New Mexico, had been ordered East, and on the 16th of September, 1862, General Carleton arrived in Santa Fe, and on the 18th assumed command of the department. Before leaving the lower country he published the following general order:
GENERAL ORDERS, Numbers 15.
HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF ARIZONA,
Las Cruces, N. Mex., August 14, 1862.
I. Commanders of towns will at once establish sanitary regulations, and require them to be observed by the inhabitants by the troops, so far as the policing of the streets and the keeping of their dwellings, quarters, stores, corrals, &c., in a state of cleanliness may be necessary to their health and comfort. Frequent inspections will be made by commanding officers or by a medical officer under his direction, to see that in all respects these regulations are followed.
II. It is expected that all of the inhabitants living along the Rio Grande southward from the Jornada del Muerto to Fort Bliss, in Texas, will, at the earliest practicable moment, repair their dwellings and clean up their streets.
The people may now rest assured that the era of anarchy and misrule-when there was no protection to life or property, when the wealthy were plundered, when the poor were robbed and oppressed, when all were insulted and maltreated, and when there was no respect for age or sex-has passed away; that now, under the sacred banner of our country, all may claim and shall receive their just rights. Therefore let the burden of anxiety be lifted from their hearts, and once let them pursue their avocations with cheerfulness, and with the full confidence that the protection which now shelters them from injustice will always be stronger in proportion as they shall be powerless to protect themselves.
The success of the march of this column was dependent upon two things: First, the endurance of the men; second, the care taken of them. From the first organization of the column the constant care of General Carleton was given it; the health of the men first, discipline next. Constantly watchful, the minutest detail received his personal attention. Every movement was based upon calculation; nothing avoidable left to chance. To conduct this expedition successfully required a clear head, sound judgment, indomitable will, and perseverance. All these General Carleton possesses in an eminent degree.
It will not be too much to say that there are probably few men in the United States Army so well fitted to command an expedition of this kind. A military experience of more than twenty years, a great portion of it spent on our frontiers, has made him familiar by experience with the wants and requirements of men in desert marching.
In this march everything was reduced to the smallest possible compass. No tents were used by officers or men during the whole march. Two wagons were allowed to a company. In these were carried camp and garrison equipage, ten days' rations, mess furniture - everything belonging to a company. Every article was weighed. Officers, from the general down, carried but 80 pounds of baggage, including bedding, mess kit, &c.
The troops suffered very little from sickness. The mortality was very small. Not one single death occurred on the march of the column from the Pacific Ocean to the Rio Grande, from the 13th of April to the 8th of August, and but five deaths from disease in hospital during this time - two at Fort Barrett and three at Tucson.