War of the Rebellion: Serial 009 Page 0600 OPERATIONS IN TEX., N. MEX., AND ARIZ. Chapter XXI.

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are in the mesquite, on the right of the road; here quite a thicket; some gra, but dry. The road is now level, or nearly so, for 3 or 4 miles. At 6.45 a. m. halted at the Picacho Station on the right, and distant from Blue Water Station 14.9 miles; saw a band of antelope near foot of peak; no water as this point; consumed about 200 gallons of water in tank, for which had to wait half an hour; resumed march at 7.45 a. m.; road begins to descend towards the south 2 miles beyond the Picacho and so continues to point of mountain, a very excellent road all the way. At 25.5 miles passed a deep well; dry on right; no water ever found here; high mountain on right; distant from 30 to 100 miles, and between mountain and road valley of Santa Cruz River, here only an arroyo, which road crosses near point of mountain; at 12 m. and 29 miles halted one-half hour; met a messenger at 1. 30 p. m. and received notice of water in abundance at point of mountain, where company arrived and encamped at 4. 15 p. m.; station on right and well on left of road; water plenty; no grass; no wood at well, and but little on last 8 miles of road; used water brought from Tucson on wagons, and did not thoroughly test the capacity of the well, which is 39 feet deep, with 4 feet of water; all agree in pronouncing it the best on the desert and say it cannot be dipped dry ; 39.1 miles.

June 5, left camp at 3 a. m. about 5 miles from point of mountain; dense mesquite thicket a good cover for Indians; at 6 miles crossed arroyo of Santa Cruz River, descending to left; quite dry; a little sand and some more at 11 miles, one-half mile of it this time; remainder of road very good; numerous cotton wood trees on road this day and much mesquite; no water; between 7 and 10 miles from of mountain much salt grass; poor stuff for forage. First 5 and last 3 1\2 miles to-day's march very fine; road of hard gravel; arrived at Tucson at 8.45 a. m.; 15 miles. Total, 86.7 miles.

Tucson is about haft way between Fort Yuma and the Rio Grande, and contains a population of 400, or perhaps 500, mostly Mexicans, A few Americans and foreigners were living here, principally gamblers and ruffians, traitors to their country-secessionists.

Colonel Carleton received his promotion to brigadier-general of volunteers while on the desert in the early part of June. On his arrival at Tucson the Territory of Arizona was at once placed under martial law, and the following proclamation issued.*

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A number of notorious characters were arrested, examined by military commissions and sent to Fort Yuma. Order sprang from disorder, and in short time a den of thieves was converted into a peaceful village.

In the mean time General Carleton was making active preparations to move his command to the Rio Grande; wagons were repaired; stores collected from Sonora, and everything put in as good condition as circumstances would permit after the severe march over the Yuma and Gila Deserts.

No communication up to this time could be had with our forces in New Mexico. The strength of the rebels and their locality entirely unknown.

The great difficulty in communicating with General Canby, at that time in command of the Department of New Mexico, was on account of hostile Indians. The Apache Nation occupying the whole country between the Rio Grande and the Colorado River, the great distance to be traversed through country, rendered it hazardous if not impossible for any small party to get through it.

General Carleton endeavored to send and express to General Canby from Tucson. This was carried by 3 men. The party was attacked near Apache Pass, and 2 of the men were killed by the Indians; the survivor was pursued some 40 miles and barely escaped death. He was captured by the Texans near Mesilla and the dispatches to General Canby fell into their hands. From these they learned the exact strength of General Carleton's command and the intended movement of the column.

On the 22nd of June Carleton sent forward Lieutenant-Colo-

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* See inclosure C to Carleton's report of August 2, p. 561.

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