able, and seeing that the enemy steadily advanced on my right flank and was speedily gaining my rear, and many of the corps having ex-hausted their ammunition, I have orders to move the whole brigade to the rear up the road, with a view of forming a new line of battle. Before this order was given all the troops on the right of my brigade had fallen back except the Thirty-first Illinois, Colonel John A. Logan, who occupied the left of Colonel Oglesby's brigade. Immediately adjoining the Thirty-first and on the right of my line was the Eleventh Illinois, Lieutenant Colonel T. E. G. Ransom commanding. When the order to retire was given it failed to reach Lieutenant-Colonel Ransom, who with the Eleventh Regiment was gallantly supporting the Thirty-first against a fierce onslaught on their right. Rapidly as gaps were opened in the ranks by the enemy's fire they were as promptly closed to the right, and the shortening front alone showed the destructiveness of that fire. Soon the Thirty-first, their ammunition having failed, retired, and the Eleventh took their place, changing front to the rear under a most galling fire with all the coolness and precision of veterans. In the mean time the order to retire was being executed in good order by the other regiments of the brigade. The character of the ground rendered it impossible for me to see the whole line at once, and when the Eleventh changed their front they were exposed to a fire in front an on both flanks, and the enemy's cavalry charging upon their flank they were thrown into some confusion, and retired, but steadily and in comparatively good order. After falling back some half a mile I halted the brigade, and as speedily as possible procured a supply of ammunition and formed a second line of battle. At this point Colonel Ross, of the Seventeenth Illinois, arrived on the field and took command of the Seventeenth and Forty-ninth Regiments, and we were re-enforced by some troops of General Lew. Wallace's division, and with their aid and the assistance of Taylor's artillery and some pieces of Dresser's and Willard's batteries the advance of the enemy was checked and he was driven within his entrenchments, leaving a large number of his dead and wounded on the field.
At night my brigade was withdrawn to a hill between the valleys, so as to be within easy supporting distance of either wing, when I rested until morning. With morning (the 16th) came the news that the enemy had surrendered. The whole brigade was instantly formed and marched down the valley into the center of the enemy's works, where we hoisted the Union flag upon the inner entrenchments of the fort and fired a Federal salutes from Taylor's battery. Dickey's cavalry were so disposed as to cover all the approaches and prevent the escape of prisoners, and rendered very effective service in securing and bringing in prisoners during the day.
Would that my task could end here, with the record of the endurance, bravery, and heroism of our troops, crowned as it was with such signal success. The loss of my brigade has been heavy, as the annexed list of killed, wounded, and missing will show.* The right of my line was more heavily engaged on the 15th than any other portion, though all were under heavy fire for hours. The Eleventh Regiment, bearing posted on the right of my line, suffered more than any other regiment, having 67 killed on the field. The Twentieth Regiment, which stood next to the Eleventh, was the next heaviest sufferer, having 18 killed on the field. The Forty-eighth, Forty-fifth, Forty-ninth, and Seventeenth each suffered a considerable loss on the 15th, in addition to the loss in the operations of the 13th. In my original brigade every lieutenant-colonel of infantry was
*See p. 168.