Question. Were you in New Orleans when it was evacuated. If so, state, if you know, whether Leeds & Co. removed their machinery and such material of war as might have been then in their establishment.
Answer. None of the machinery was removed, but all the Government work was sent off that could be. Much the larger portion was removed under the order of Colonel Lovell, received on the morning of April 24, 1862. About 200 tons of shot and shell were all that was left, and that could have been got off, but the railroad became gorged up, and its agents refused to receive more. From experiments and authorities on the subjected we found that heavy guns could boat be well made with machinery we had. The iron was much injured by being fused in a cupola furnace, but we went to work and had nearly completed a reverberatory furnace when the city fell.
Question. Did you ever inspect the machinery being erected on board of the Mississippi? If so, when, under what circumstanced, and what time in your opinion, would have been required for its completion?
Answer. I did, about April 15, 1862, in company with Mr. Cook, a well-known machinist of New Orleans, who had been requested to make the inspection by a committee in the city. We were of the opinion that, with the best assistance of other establishments in the city, aside from Kirk's, it might have been done in six weeks.
Honorable C. M. CONRAD was next sworn and examined as a witness.
By the JUDGE-ADVOCATE:
Question. Have you not been a member of Congress from the city of New Orleans since the organization of the Confederate States Government and for the same time have you not been chairman of the House Committe on Naval Affairs? If so, state all you may know touching the defenses of New Orleans, particularly its naval defenses, its capture by the enemy, and its evacuation.
Answer. I know very little about the defenses of New Orleans generally, being absent most of the time from the commencement of the war until it was taken, first at Montgomery and afterward in this city. I will state, however,, from the commencement of the war a great deal of anxiety was felt by the citizens for its safety, as there was no defense whatever from an attack from above, either by land or naval force, and the only defenses below were the two forts (Jackson and Saint Philip), which were known to have a very insufficient armament, and which it was known the highest military or naval officers regarded, even with a complete armament, inadequate to prevent the passage of steamers. At that time no preparations whatever had been begun to resist as attack by land. Under these circumstances the city authorities determined to provide, as far as possible, for the defense of the city, aided also by the governor of the State. They made a large appropriation in money, and, I think, also the governor assumed the responsibility of advancing some on behalf of the State for the purpose of erecting fortifications around the city. Engineers were employed for this purpose. These works were commenced, but they seemed to advance very slowly, and I was requested to see the President, to have one or more engineers assigned to duty there. A committee of the council came or sent to procure guns for the works, and some guns were obtained, but no as many as were demanded for these works were supplied. Still, however, great complaints were made as to a want of energy in the construction of the works, and great anxiety manifested lest they would not be done in time. Under these circumstances the Government determined to send General Lovell to take command. I returned to new Orleans about the time the general did. I had myself but little opportunity of judging of the manner in which he discharged his duties, as I only remained four or five weeks and returned to Richmond; but I must say that it was a subject at the time of general congratulation among the citizens that more energy seemed to be infused into the work of defense than had previously prevailed. He immediately visited all the forts (which General Twiggs' infirmities prevented him from doing), and it was understood that he had made important changes it the land defenses. I left there favorably impressed with his administration, although without accuracy knowledge on the subjected, and so stated on my arrival here. I observed, however, that the iron-plated gunboats were progressing a slowly. I went up to look at them. The work on one of them (I tiny it was the Mississippi) had been suspended for ten or twelve days. While I was there this was a subject of remark among the citizens generally. During the course of that winter I received frequent letters from my constituents complaining of the slowness with which the work advanced, and requested that I should urge the adoption of measures to expedite the work. Either before I left New Orleans or after arriving, some one suggested that