what is your opinion as to the ability of land defenses to resist vessels of war under steam?
Answer. My opinion had always been that steam vessels of war can pass forts in an open channel free from obstruction.
Question. How many guns of caliber of 8-inch and above that were mounted for the defense of Pensacola Harbor?
Answer. When I left Pensacola, about November 5, 1861, there were at least fifteen 8 and 10 inch columbiads; also a number of 10-inch and two 13-inch mortars. Three of the 10-inch guns were brought to New Orleans after April 1, 1862.
Captain BEVERLY KENNON was then sworn and examined as a witness.
By Major General MANSFIELD LOVELL:
Question. What position did you hold when General Lovell assumed command of Department Numbers 1, in October, 1861?
Answer. I was in charge of the Ordnance Department of the Navy.
Question. Did you make arrangements with the firm of Bennett & Surges to cast heavy guns? If so, how many, and when were they to begin work?
Answer. I did make arrangements with the firm of Bennett & Surges to cast guns. This was about October 1, 1861. They could not make the guns I wanted then because they had not the proper iron. I ordered fifty heavy 8-inch smooth-bore guns. This party was to commence work when they procured the proper material, but the Secretary of the Navy broke all my contracts before any one firm was really ready to commence work.
By the JUDGE-ADVOCATE:
Question. Why was not the arrangement spoken of in regard to heavy guns executed by Bennett & Surges? State all the facts connected with this matter.
Answer. Because the Secretary of the Navy ordered that all work that I had ordered should be stopped. He gave as a reason that the expenditures in the Ordnance Department were enormous and must be curtailed. This note, or order, or whatever it may be termed, came from the Confederate States Naval Ordnance Department I suppose with Mr. Mallory's indorsement.
Question. State generally what other contracts made by you, if any, were stopped by order of the Secretary of the Navy.
Answer. All contracts were stopped, and in the majority of cases all purchases returned. By all contracts, I mean the manufacture of guns and carriages, shot, shell, spherical case, and pretty much everything belonging to an ordnance department. Mr. Mallory or his subordinates would not take the lead, copper, block tin, zinc, and flannel that I had purchased. As an instance of my purchases, in the line of flannel I must have gotten $50,000 worth, yet Mr. Mallory would not take it. I procured it at an average price of 45 cents per yard. He afterwards bought the same article at four times the price. All other articles rose in price inthe same ration. he found he had to have them, but pad a much greater price for them. Had Mr. Mallory allowed the foundries and other establishments in New Orleans then working for the Navy to continue their work, I am sure the city would not have fallen. There was an abundance of guns and projectiles of all sorts making and made when he stopped work. Among the contracts or work in progress I had 300 submarine batteries, Mr. Mallory would not use or allow to be completed for use. I furnished General Polk with 150 of them. I know not what became of the rest. I made no contract for fuses, fire-works, rockets, &c., as they were made in the Confederate States naval laboratory. I started a powder-mill, which was broken up by order from Richmond. To bring this answer to a close, every contract was more of less broken in upon by Mr. Mallory's order until just before New Orleans fell, when it was too late to repair damages.
Question. Did you take part in the engagement with the Federal fleet before the passage of the forts? If so, in what capacity and with what result?
Answer. I did take part in the engagement below New Orleans with the Federal fleet. I was then commander of the steamer Governor Moore, and with her sunk the