the fleet above in case of attack; a return of all the provisions in the forts was made a demand for surrender by commodore Porter was refused, and Commander Mitchell was requested by me to move his vessel to the opposite side of the river, above Fort Jackson, to assist in the defense from an attack which was expected from above, which he would not do or attempt to do.
Question. Under whose command were the fire rafts and guard boats before and after the time of the passage of the forts, and were they used as they should have been?
Answer. Previous to the arrival of Commander Mitchell (the second or third day of the bombardment) the river fleet was under the order of General Duncan; when he came down, the fire rafts, gunboats, the river fleet, and everything afloat was turned over to him. The fire rafts were not lighted up the night of the passage of the enemy's fleet although Commander Mitchell had promised to have it done. While General Duncan commanded the floating defenses fire rafts and guard boats were regularly sent down, but not afterwards, to the best of my knowledge.
Question. Did General Lovell ever send you to Boton rouge to induce the legislature of Louisiana to make appropriations for the building of gunboats for the defense of New Orleans? If yea, state at what time this mission was undertaken, and was it practicable to have constructed the gunboats and had them ready for service before the fall of the city?
Answer. General Lovell did send me to Baton Rouge on such duty in December, 1861. There was ample time and material obtainable to have provided a fleet sufficient for such purpose. A bill making an appropriation of $2,500,000 passed the senate and was defeated in the house.
Question. Were you sent by General Lovell, in the early part of March, 1862, to endeavor to replace the obstructions at Fort Jackson? If so, state what were your instructions, and give a general idea of what was done by you.
Answer. Yes; about that time. At the time spoken I was informed by General Lovell that the raft had broken its fastenings, on the Fort Jackson side of the river, and left about one-third of the river open. he instructed me to go down with a number of barges and fill up the gap, by placing them in the open space and using them as buoys to stretch chains across from the raft on the shore. Upon arriving at the fort I found the raft had also broken from the Fort Saint Philip side, and had dragged several hundred yards below its first position (it was then handing by its heaviest anchors, which held it lengthwise of the river). I commenced immediately to cut it into sections, and telegraphed to the general to send met tow-boats to assist in replacing it by sections. I found it impossible, however, on account of the strength of the current, to hold all the sections imposition after replacing them; the immense weigh of the chains, together with the pressure of the water, forced them under the surface, and slowly dragged them down the river, except three sections, of about 100 yards each, one on the Fort Jackson side and two on the Fort Saint Philip side, which remained where placed. I then went up to New Orleans and reported the fact to General Lovell, who directed me to seize a number of vessels, taken them down between the forts, and anchor them in line across the river, stretching chains across over them. I accordingly seized a number or heavily built vessels, and carried out my instructions. They were anchored across the river, as nearly as possible, in the position occupied by the raft, and dismantled, their masts and rigging left to trail astern in order to catch the propellers of any vessel which might attempt to pass. Each vessel had two anchors down and 60 fathoms of chain to each anchor, and three 1-inch chains were stretched across all of them, connecting them with the raft sections remaining in position, forming a barrier which I am confident none of the enemy's ships could have forced under fire from the forts.
Question. What number of fire rafts were sent to Fort Jackson for use by General Lovell?
Answer. I do not remember the number; there were a great many.
Question. What was the immediate cause of the surrender of the forts on April 28, 1862?
Answer. Mutiny of the garrison.
Question. What amount of powder was expended in the fight at Forts