before working her way up in the back bays was in view, immediately in the rear of Fort Saint Philip, and near the mouth of Fort Bayou.
A frigate and five other vessels were also in sight towards Bird Island, one of which was seen working her way up the bay. From ten to thirteen launches were visible near the boat back of Fort Saint Philip, by means of which troops were being landed at the quarantine above us.
About 12 m. one of the enemy's gunboats from below made her appearance under a flag of truce, bearing a written demand for the surrender of the forts, signed by Commander David D. Porter, U. S. Navy, commanding mortar flotilla. (See attached document S.) The forts refused to surrender. (See attached document T.)
About 4 p. m. the French man-of-war Milan, Captain Clouet, commanding, passed up to the city, after asking and obtaining permission of the forts to do so. The position of the Louisiana still remained unchanged.
So far, throughout the entire bombardment and final action, the spirit of the troops was cheerful, confident, and courageous. They were mostly foreign enlistments, without any great interests at stake in the ultimate success of the revolution. A reaction set in among them during the lull of the 25th, 26th, and 27th, when there was no other excitement to arouse them than the fatigue duty of repairing our damages and when the rumor was current that the city had surrendered and was then in the hands of the enemy.
No reply had been received from the city to my dispatches sent by couriers on the 24th and 25th, by means of which I could reassure them. They were still obedient, but not buoyant and cheerful. In consequence, I endeavored to revive their courage and patriotism by publishing an order to both garrisons, attached hereto as document U.
I regret to state that it did not produce the desired effect. Everything remained quiet, however, until midnight, when the garrison of Fort Jackson revolted in mass; seized upon the guard and posterns; reversed the field pieces commanding the gates, and commenced to spike the guns, while many of the men were leaving the fort in the mean time under arms. All this occurred as suddenly as it was unexpected. The men were mostly drawn up under arms and positively refused to fight any longer, besides endeavoring by force to bring over the Saint Mary's Cannoneers and such other few men as remained true to their cause and country.
The mutineers stated that the officers intended to hold out as long as possible, or while the provisions lasted, and then blow up the forts and everything in them; that the city had surrendered, and that there was no further use in fighting; that the enemy were about to attack by land and water on three sides at once, and that a longer defense would only prove a butchery. Every endeavor was made by the officers to repress the revolt and to bring the men to reason and order, but without avail. Officers upon the ramparts were fired upon by the mutineers in attempting to put a stop to the spiking of the guns.
I am greatly indebted to the Rev. Father Nachon for his efforts to quell the mutineers, through some of whom he learned that the revolt had been discussed among them for two days, and yet these was no one man among them true enough to communicate the fact to his officers. Signals also were said to have been passed between the forts during the night and while the mutiny was at its height. Being so general among the men, the officers were helpless and powerless to act. Under these circumstances there was but one course left, viz, to let those men go who wished to leave the fort, in order to see the number left and to ascertain what reliance could be placed upon them. About one-half of the garrison left immediately, including men from every company except-