War of the Rebellion: Serial 005 Page 0580 OPERATION IN MD., N. VA., AND W. VA. Chapter XIV.

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sea-boards and ordered to this point at as early a date as possible, to be mounted as field artillery. For this purpose I am of the opinion that four of the seven companies at Fort Monroe, one of the two companies at Fort McHenry, and seven of the eleven companies on the Pacific coast-in all twelve companies-can very well be spared. Their places in the forts might be very well filled by companies of battalions of volunteer artillery. For this latter purpose I would recommend that corps of volunteer artillery be raised for this special service exclusively. In many of our cities and large towns int he immediate vicinity of the sea-board forts, portions of the militia have been drilled at or have otherwise become familiar with the sea-coast guns. it is believed that many such persons, who would not enlist under ordinary circumstances, would readily enroll themselves for the sole purpose of garrisoning works int he immediate vicinity, and intended for the defense of their homes and places of business.

I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,


Brigadier-General, Chief of Artillery.


Washington, August 23, 1861.

Major General GEORGE B. MCCLELLAN, Commanding:

GENERAL: I have the honor to submit a proposed organization of the artillery for the Army of the Potomac. This organization is based upon an establishment of 100,000 men, and as it is presumed a large majority of the troops will not be over-well discipline or instructed, the artillery, to give them confidence and steadiness, is arranged upon the basis of three pieces to 1,000 men: Three pieces to 1,000 men-two-thirds guns of which one-fourth are 12-pounders, three-fourths are 6-pounders, and of each of which one-half are rifled; one-third howitzers, of which one-eighth are 32-pounders, one-eighth are 24-pounders, and three-fourths are 12-pounders, the whole distributed as follows:

For the infantry, two pieces to 1,000 men-light 12-pounders, Parrott 10-pounders, James 13-pounders, or 6-pounder guns and 12-pounder howitzers, assembled in mounted batteries.

For the cavalry, two pieces to 1,000 men-6-pounder guns and 12-pounder howitzers mixed, and 12-pounder howitzers alone, assembled in horse artillery batteries.

For the reserve, one piece to 1,000 men-one-half 6-pounder horse artillery and mounted batteries and one-half 12-pounder mounted batteries.

As the troops improve in discipline and become veterans by experience and continued service the ratio of guns to men might be reduced one-half, and thus a force of three hundred guns would amply suffice for an army of 200,000 men. Seven thousand vie hundred men and 5,000 horses will be required to equip an artillery force of the above organization.

With regard to the artillery of the field works erected and erecting for the defense of Washington, I have the honor to state the defensive works at present completed mounted seventy-eight guns. Of these, thirty are shell guns, five are rifled guns, and thirty-four are 24 and 32 pounders, the remainder being field-guns for flank defense. The new defensive works in process of construction will mount about fifty guns. One thousand one hundred men will be required for the service of these guns.