War of the Rebellion: Serial 005 Page 0104 OPERATIONS IN MD., N VA., AND W. VA Chapter XIV.

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the strength of the army, that 10 per cent., or 20,000 men, ought to be provided for in the hospitals.

But 20,000 patients will require 2,000 nurses, 666 cooks, and 1,000 matrons; 200 medical officers, and as many stewards and ward-masters, will also be required. The number of cooks may be reduced materially, but the number of matrons cannot, as I include the laundresses under that head. I think 300 cooks will be sufficient. Whatever extent of hospital establishment may be determined upon finally may find its administrative force adjusted by this scale. For the medical officers required as interne, I rely upon the States that have appointed medical boards of examiners. They must be employed by contract. The commissioned medical officers of the army or volunteers cannot supply the necessary force.

The buildings for this establishment will necessarily be large and expensive, but I am satisfied the demands of economy and humanity will be met by the adoption of the plans herewith submitted. All experience has shown that dwelling-houses, hotels, and the like are unfit for military hospitals. It is impossible to ventilate them properly, and their interior is always so arranged that, while there is great waster of space, the sick are always crowded, and at the same time a larger number of surgeons, cooks, stewards, &c., are required for their administration than in the well-arranged hospitals that modern science and experience have devised. The single-floor pavilion hospital is the one that now unites the opinions of the scientific and humane throughout the world in its favor. Such a plan has been prepared by an architect under the supervision of the Sanitary Commission, and is herewith submitted. This is a design for one building, and is calculated to accommodate 200 patients, with the necessary administrative force. It will require 100 of these buildings for the number of patients I have supposed we shall have. The accompanying memoir of the Sanitary Commission contains the specifications for the buildings.*

Under ordinary circumstances I would not undertake to modify this plan in any way. It meets my views fully as it stands. But as I think we may save both time and money in the construction by some modifications, I would suggest-

1. That the buildings should rest upon timber instead of masonry supports.

2. That the wards should be but 12 instead of 14 feet high. This will give each man 1,260 cubic feet, an ample space, considering the excellent arrangements for ventilation in the plan.

3. The upper windows in the plan may be dispensed with if we make the other windows 8 feet high, and reaching from within 1 foot of the ceiling to 3 feet of the floor. The upper sash should let down. The lower sash may be made "French fashion," or to light,but it should be furnished with a lock, so that it could not be opened without the orders of the surgeon.

4. The administration building may be reduced in size by omitting two of the 14 by 20 rooms on each floor. The remaining rooms will be sufficient for the necessary personnel of the building. For sites for these buildings I propose to occupy the grounds of Mr. Stone on fourteenth street, opposite Columbia College. He has two lots, one of 87 acres, the other of 40, both of which he has placed at the disposal of the Government for this purpose. The grounds lie well, are well drained, and well supplied with excellent water. There are three springs upon


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