in Fitz-John Porter's division. On the 8th of the same month measles are reported as having disappeared, while the number of sick in quarters is reported as materially reduced, notwithstanding the inclemency of the weather. Typhoid fever appeared in some of the camps during the autumn, but gradually disappeared as winter advanced. This disease is now and has been for years endemic in the United States. We could not hope to escape it altogether. In some few regiments, under peculiar circumstances, there were a good many cases, but taken as a whole, and considering the number of men in the camps, the cases were so few, we might almost ignore it altogether. In Hunt's artillery reserve during the last quarter of 1861 it prevailed to some extent, but in January it had entirely disappeared. This command had during this time one of the largest sick reports in the army. On the 31st January, 1862, the prevalent diseases in it were reported to be catarrh and bronchitis, attributed to the effects of the rains and thaws.
In October and November, 1861, with an army averaging 130,000 men, we had 7,932 cases of fevers of all sorts. Of these about 1,000 were reported as cases of typhoid fever. I know that errors of diagnosis were frequently committed, and therefore this must be considered as the limit of typhoid cases. If any army in the world can show such a record as this, I do not know when and where it was assembled.
The most striking contrasts were exhibited in the relative health of the troops from different States and sometimes among regiments from the same State. Thus, in November, 1861, with a mean ratio of 6.5 per cent. sick in the whole army, twelve Massachusetts regiments gave an average of 50 sick each; five Vermont, an average of 144 each, and thirty-five Pennsylvania, an average of 61 each. In January, 1862, the Twelfth Massachusetts, 1,005 strong, had but 4 sick; the Thirteenth, 1,008 strong, but 11; while the Fifteenth, 809 strong, had 68. In the same month the Fifth Vermont, 1,000 strong, had 271 sick; the Fourth, 1,047 strong, had 244 sick; while the Second, 1,021 strong, had but 87, and the Third, 900 strong, had but 84. All these regiments were in the same brigade and encamped side by side. The Tenth Pennsylvania Reserves, 965 strong, had 7 sick; the First Pennsylvania Rifles, 889 strong, had 67 sick; and the First Pennsylvania Cavalry, 890 strong, had 96 sick.
The health of some of the regiments, under adverse hygienic circumstances, seemed to set all reasoning at defiance. Thus, in February, 1862, Colonel Geary's Pennsylvania regiment, of Banks' division, that had been serving all summer upon the banks of the Potomac and the canal, had but 2.5 per cent. sick. There was a constant improvement in the health of the whole army as the season progressed, and at the time the march to Fairfax Court-House was ordered, with a very few exceptions, every regiment in it was in the most satisfactory condition. Some of them showed a most extraordinary improvement. Thus, in four regiments of Pennsylvania troops in McCall's division, there were but 68 men on the sick report on the 1st of March, 1862.
The records in my possession show that in -
September, 1861, among 84,788 men, we had 6,007 sick = 7 per cent..
October, 1861, among 116, 763 men, we had 7,443 sick = 6.07 per cent.
November, 1861, among 142, 577 men, we had 9,281 sick = 6.50 per cent.
January, 1862, among 181, 082 men, we had 11,225 sick = 6.18 per cent..
Of these the men sick in the regimental and general hospitals were less than one-half; the remainder were slight cases, under treatment in quarters. The health of particular regiments was at this time very re