War of the Rebellion: Serial 003 Page 0458 OPERATIONS IN MO., ARK., KANS., AND IND. T. Chapter X.

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fornia on the west, and controlling the banks of the Mississippi opposite Kentucky and half of Tennessee on the east, makes its early possession by the Government a vital matter connected with any movements in the Mississippi Valley. Surrounded as it is by free States, any delay in its subjugation will have a damaging effect upon the Government at home and a disastrous influence abroad. It is supposed that very great efforts will be made by the secessionists of that State to carry in their favor the election soon to be held for new State officers. Union voters near the borders are being driven out, and large numbers of others with their families put in such extreme peril that self-preservation is rapidly joining them to the forces of the enemy. While it may be true that the Union force can beat more than their number of rebels if it can get at them, the general character of the rebels in that State is such, that their subjugation by an equal number of Government soldiers will certainly be very expensive and tedious process, if not a total failure. Large bodies of mounted guerrillas will require a large force and severe measures to bring them to terms, and it seems to me that every day's delay in pushing the most vigorous offensive measures in North Missouri is fraught with great peril and mischief that it will cost much blood and treasure to correct.

In view of the intense activity of the enemy-his rapidly gaining strength; his continued successes, with the choice of secession or union soon to be voted on in the selection of State officers, and the larger part of the voters now in the control (by friendship or fear) of the rebels-seeing so much affecting not only that State, but the whole cause at stroke there, I have felt it my duty to write you, upon whom rests so much of the responsibility in this matter.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,



Extracts from letter of J. T. K. Hayward to J. W. Brooks, dated "Steamer Hannibal City, August 13, 1861."

I go down to-day with a committee from Palmyra to see what can be done to put a stop to the outrages perpetrated on the community by Government troops, partly under orders of officers and partly without orders. I will state the case impart. Last week our trains were fired into several times about 6 miles west of Palmyra, in Marion County. On Thursday night a party of rebels came into Palmyra, disarmed a few Union men, ad did some trifling damage. I think there is good reason to believe that the cars were fired into by rangers from another county, and without any knowledge of the people near them, and that the course is disapproved and reprehended by nearly all. The citizens, I think, are generally oppose to violence, and some of the leading secessionists interfered to prevent trouble and bloodshed when the rebel band visited Palmyra. Now, to carry out General Pope's programme, some 600 men are sent to Palmyra, and the county court notified to provide them with rations and pay all expenses. In their failure the city council is notified to do it at county expense, and in their failure notice is given that they shall take it where they can most conveniently find it, and that these men will be quartered there until they (the people) arrest and deliver over to military authority the men who have been guilty of these offenses. Yesterday, as the rations were not forthcoming, they sent out a company of troops, and visited the stores, and took