53. See Anderson, Vietnam: The Other War, Chapter 3.
54. Ibid., p. 2.
55. R&R figures from III MAF ComdCs, 1968.
56. Most Vietnam autobiographies and novels mention the disdain held by front line men for those in the rear. Examples include James Webb's Fields of Fins (Englewood Cliffs, NJ.: Prentice-Hall, 1978), Gustav Has-ford's The Short Timers (New York: Harper & Row, 1979), and Philip Caputo's A Rumor of War (New York: Holt, Rhinehart, and Winston, 1977). Charles R. Anderson, in Vietnam: The Other War, discusses the guilt felt by rear area troops (pp. 20-21) and also the desire of men who have been in combat to find and keep these comfortable jobs (pp. 19-20).
57. Hoffman intvw, p. 158.
58. Col Robert D Heini, USMC (Ret), Dictionary o/Military andNaval Quotations (Annapolis, MD: U.S. Naval Institute, 1966), p. 22.
59. BGen R. R. Van Stockum, DepSrMbr, Navy Dept Board of Decorations and Medals Presentation, tab W, p. 2, General Officers Symposium Book, 1968.
61. For a discussion of the problems associated with men in combat without a realistic rotation plan, and the benefits of such a plan, see Samuel A. Stouffer et al.. The American Soldier (Princeton, New Jersey:
Princeton University Press, 1949), 2 vols, v. 2, Chapters 2 and 8.
62. For a discussion of how long men can stand sustained combat, see Anthony Keller, Combat Motivation (Boston: Kluwer-Nijhoff Publishing, 1982), pp. 276-277. Lord Moran, in The Anatomy of Courage (London: Constable & Company, 1945) also argues that the effects of combat are cumulative, and that every man has a breaking point.
63. Lt Ted D. Kilpatrick, MSG, USNR, and Harry A. Grater, Jr., "Field Report on Marine Psychiatric Casualties in Vietnam," Military Medicine, October 1971, p. 809. The Aviation Shortage
64. LtCol William R. Fails, USMC, Marines and Helicopters 1962-1973 (Washington, D.C.: Hist&MusDiv, HQMC, 1978), p. 61, hereafter Fails, Marines and Helicopters.
65. News Release No. 923-57, DoD Office of Public Information, "NavCads Will No Longer Be Commissioned Early; Must Complete 18-Month Flight Training Course," 17Sep57, in Aviarion: Pilot Training file, RefSec, MCHC.
66. News Release No. 414-55, DoD Office of Public Information, "Marine Corps Announces New Aviation Officer Candidate Course," lMay55 and "Marine Aviation Flight Training," July 1957, in Aviarion: Pilot Training file, RefSec, MCHC.
67. Fails, Marines and Helicopters, p. 65; News Release No. 786-59, DoD Office of Public Information, "Marine Aviation Cadets Begin Training at Pensacola," HJul59, in Aviation: Pilot Training file, RefSec, MCHC.
68. Commandant, Marine Corps Schools, Presentation, p. 6, tab VI.A, General Officers Symposium Book, 1965.
69. Fails, Marines and Helicopters, p. 138; note 9.
70. Ibid., pp. 129-130.
71. Ibid., p. 139.
72. BGen E. E. Anderson, Memo for the Record, Subj: Telecon wirh LtGen V. Krulak, dtd 6Jan68, Norman J. Anderson Papers; CGFMFPac msg to CGIIIMAF, dtd 10Jan68, III MAF Incoming Msgs; MajGen Norman J. Anderson inrvw, 17Mar81, pp. 254-56 (Oral HistColl, MCHC).
73. DepDir Pers, Presentation, tab J, pp. 3^, General Officers Symposium Book, 1968.
74. MajGen Carl A. Youngdale Itr to Commanding General, III Marine Amphibious Force, Subj: Board to Consider the Utilization, Command and Control of Marine Corps Helicopter Assets in III MAF, dtd 27Apr69, End (2), pp. 20-22, hereafter Youngdale Board.
75. Fails, Marines and Helicopters, p. 141.
76. MajGen Keith B. McCutcheon Itr to MajGen William G. Thrash et al., Subj: Graduation of Marine Officers from U.S. Air Force Flight Schools, dtd 14Feb68, and MajGen McCutcheon Itr ro BGen E. E. Anderson, dtd 10Oct68, Itr No. 93, both in McCutcheon Papers, Box 20, PC464, MCHC; DCS Air Presentation, pp. 11-13, tab G, General Officers Symposium Book, 1968.
77. DCS Air Presentation, p. 24, tab I, General Officers Symposium Book, 1969.
78. Fails, Marines and Helicopters, p. 140.
79. DC/S Air memo to ACS, G-1, Subj: Manpower Overage for Occupational Field (OF) 63, dtd 12Apr68 (CF 68 file 5310).
80. Youngdale Board, p. 20.
81. Ibid., pp. 20,22.
82. Ibid, p. 20. Filling the Ranks in Vietnam
83. Unless otherwise noted, the number of Marines in Vietnam is taken from page 14-1 of the HQMC Command Center, Srarus of Forces.
84. "U.S. Ground Strategy and Force Deployments," Dept of Defense, Pentagon Papers, bk 5, sec IV-C-6, vol. 2, pp. 213-214.
85. Ibid., pp. 148, 150.
86. Ibid., p. 218.
87. CGFMFPac msg to CGIIIMAF, dtd 27Oct67, and CGFMFPac msg to CMC, dtd 9Mar68; in HQMC Msg Files. MCBul 1300, Subj:
Tour Lengths for Personnel Attached to Fleet Marine Force Units in the Far East, dtd 24Oct68, CF 1968, File 1300.
88. CMC Itr to CG MCB Camp Pendleton and CG MCB Camp Lejeune, Subj: Retraining of Personnel into Occupational Field 03, dtd 5Jun67,CF 1967, file 1500.
89. Staging Battalion ComdC, Jul-Dec 1967, pp. 3-4,Jan-Jun 1968, p. 3, in Camp Pendleton ComdC, Jul-Dec67.
90. MACV Strength Reporr for 31 Dec 1967, dtd 24 Jan 68, pp. 1-3, 104-119.
91. KIA from Viernam casualry reference file prepared by MGySgt H. G. Lock, drawn from the information kept at the Vietnam Veterans Memorial. WIA from CMC Reference Notebook, 1968, tab II-A, Subj: USMC Casualties SEAsia, n.d. The Deployment of Regimental Landing Team 27
92. The discussion on the high-level manpower policy in this secrion is drawn in part from Herberr Y. Schandler, The Unmaking of a President: Lyndon Johnson and Vietnam (Princeton, NJ: Princeton Universiry Press, 1977), pp. 92-104.
93. JCS msg to CMC, dtd 13Feb68, tab F, G-3, HQMC, 27th Marines Deployment.