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The Battlefield


1. 3d MarDiv ComdC, Jun67, p. 34; Mr. Thomas J. Steward, conversation with author, 27Jun88.


2. Joann L. Shrock, er al., Minority Groups in the Republic o/Vietnam (Washington, DC: The American University, 1966), pp. 56-57.


3. Ibid. The Early Days


4. LtGen Victor H. Krulak, First to Fight, An Inside View of the U.S. Marine Corps (Annapolis: U.S. Naval Institute, 1984), p. 205, hereafter Krulak, First to Fight.


5. Prados and Stubbe, Valley of Decision, pp. 22-23; Stubbe, "Khe Sanh," p. 31; Khe Sanh Area Report, n.d.. End, 3d MarDiv ComdC, Jan67; LCdr Ray W. Stubbe, Comments on draft, dtd 23Oct94 (Vietnam Comment File), hereafter Stubbe Comments.


6. Capt Robert K. Whitlow, U.S. Marines in Vietnam: The Advisory and


Combat Assistance Era, 1954-1964 (Washington: Hist&MusDiv,


HQMC, 1977) p. 139; Prados and Stubbe, Valley of Decision, pp.


19-21. See also Stubbe Comments.


7. LtGen John R. Chaisson intvw, 3Apr72 (Oral HistColl, MCHC),


pp. 371-372. See also Shulimson, U.S. Marines in Vietnam, 1966, pp.


141-43.


8. Col Thomas M. Home intvw, 17-19Jan67, Tape 384 (Oral HistColl, MCHC).


9. Prados and Stubbe, Valley o/Decision, pp. 75, 185-86; Col Bruce B. G. Clarke, USA, Comments on draft, n.d. [Apr951 (Vietnam Comment File), hereafter Clarke Comments.


10. Stubbe, "Khe Sanh," p. 349; Prados and Stubbe, Valley of Decision, p. 71.


11. Telfer, Rogers, and Fleming, U.S. Marines in Vietnam, 1967, p. 45. Protecting the Investment


12. Stubbe Comments. See also Clarke Comments; LtCol Harper L. Bohr, Jr., Comments on draft, dtd 2Novl994 (Vietnam Comment File), hereafter Bohr Comments; Prados and Stubbe, Valley of Decision, pp. 152-55; Telfer, Rogers, and Fleming, U.S. Marines in Vietnam, 1967,p. 129. The Isolation of Khe Sanh


13. Stubbe, "Khe Sanh," p. 48; LtGen John A. Chaisson intvw, 3Apr72, pp. 370-74 (Oral HistColl, MCHC); AC/S G-4 memo to AC/S G-3, 4Jul67, Subj: Planning Conference, End, 3d MarDiv ComdC, Jul67.


14. LtCol James B. Wilkinson, Comments on "The Battle for Khe Sanh," 19Dec68 (Khe Sanh monograph Comment File, MCHC).


15. Ibid.


16. FMFPac, MarOpsV, Oct67, p. 85; George L. MacGarrigle, historian, CMH, Comments on draft, dtd 5Dec94 (Vietnam Comment File), hereafter MacGarrigle Comments.


17. 3d MarDiv ComdC, Nov67, p. 45.


18. 1/26 ComdC, Nov67, p. 4.


19. Stubbe, "Khe Sanh," p. 388.


20. Ibid. p. 408.


21. 26th Mar ComdC, Nov67, p. 7.


22. FMFPac, MarOpsV, Jan68, pp. 8-9; 26th Mar ComdC, Dec67, p. 3; "Intel Estimate of Situation in the Area Between Khe Sanh and Ca Lu," End, 3d MarDiv ComdC, Dec67; Robert Pisor, The End of the Line (New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1982), p. 17.


23. MajGen Rathvon McC. Tompkins, Comments on draft, dtd 19Nov69, Maj Thomas Donnelly and Capt Moyers S. Shore II, "Ho Chi Minh's Gamble," in LtCol Ralph F. Moody, et al., "Marines in Vietnam, 1954-68," 8 pts (ms, MCHC, Washington, D.C., 1971), pt VI (Vietnam Comment Files, MCHC); Tompkins Intvw, 13Apr73, p- 20.


24. LtCol Harry L. Alderman, Comments on "The Battle for Khe Sanh," n.d. (Khe Sanh Monograph Comment File, MCHC); 1/26 ComdC, Dec67, pp. 3 and 5.


25. Operation Scotland SitReps No. 252 and 254, End, 26th Mar ComdC, Jan68; Stubbe "Khe Sanh," p. 462; 26th Mar ComdC, Jan68, p. 5.


26. Maj Harper L. Bohr, Jr., Comments on "The Battle for Khe Sanh," 18Dec68 (Khe Sanh Monograph Comment File, MCHC).


27. For discussion relative to the XM-3 and other intelligence efforts see Maj Gary E. Todd, Comments on draft, dtd 28Oct94 (Vietnam Comment File) and Stubbe Comments. The Decision to Hold


28. CG FMFPac msg to CG III MAF, dtd 8Jan68 (Reel No. l, HQMC Msg File); Gen Westmoreland msg to Adm Sharp, dtd 21Jan68 (File No. MAC 00992, Westmoreland Papers).


29. W. Scott Thompson and Col Donaldson D. Frizzell, USAF, eds., The Lessons of Vietnam (New York: Crane, Russak and Co., 1977), pp. 137-138,183.


30.CG FMFPac msg to CG III MAF, dtd l lJan68 (Reel No. 6, HQMC Msg File). Note: This source is a message which contains a verbatim quote of the Wheeler to Westmoreland message mentioned in the text. See also LtGen Victor H. Krulak, Comments on draft, dtd 31Oct94 (Vietnam Comment File) and Krulak, First to Fight, pp. 215-16, and Westmoreland, A Soldier's Report, p. 336 which note the Washington obsession with Khe Sanh.


31. Khe Sanh Area Report, n.d., End, 3d MarDiv ComdC, Jan67.


32. Westmoreland, A Soldier Reports, pp. 337-338; Prados and Stubbe, Valley of Decision, pp. 350-51. Westmoreland journal entry of l lFeb68 is quoted in Prados and Stubbe, Valley of Decision, p. 351.


33. Westmoreland, A Soldier Reports, pp. 337-338. It is interesting that General Krulak makes almost the identical case in his book. See Krulak, The First to Fight, pp. 215-16. For the account of Dien Bien Phu, see: Bernard B. Fall, Hell in a Very Small Place (Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott Co., 1966), pp. 101-102; Jules Roy, The Battle ofDienbien-phu (New York: Harper and Row, 1965), pp. 149, 162.


34. LtGen Robert E. Cushman intvw, lNov82, p. 89 (Oral HistColl, MCHC), hereafter Cushman Intvw; Westmoreland, A Soldier Reports, p. 335. For Gen Westmoreland's and the MACV staff's concerns about Marine defenses at Khe Sanh, see LtGen Philip B. Davidson, Vietnam at War, The History: 1946-1975 (Novato, CA: Presidio Press, 1988), pp. 555-556, hereafter Davidson, Vietnam at War.


35. Westmoreland, A Soldier Reports, p. 336.


36. Gen Westmoreland msg to Adm Sharp, dtd 15Jan68 (File No. MAC 00686, in Westmoreland Papers); Westmoreland, A Soldier Reports, pp. 171-2; MacGarrigle Comments.


37. Gen William C. Westmoreland Itr to Gen Leonard F. Chapman, Jr., dtd 21Apr69 (Khe Sanh Correspondence File, MCHC).


38. LtGen Robert E. Cushman, Commenrs on "The Battle for Khe Sanh," 26Dec68 (Khe Sanh Monograph Comment File); Cushman Intvw, pp. 22-23.


39. CG FMFPac msg to CINCPAC, dtd 13Jan68 (Reel No. 4, HQMC Msg File, MCHC).


40. Krulak, First to Fight, p. 218.


41.LtGen Victor H. Krulak intvw, 22Jun70, p. 8 (Oral HistColl, MCHC). See also Krulak, First to Fight, pp. 218-19.







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