Page 656

Page 656 (1968: The Defining Year)







21. MACV ComdHist, 1968, pp 378-80; HQMC, Status of Forces, Dec67; Simmons, "Marine Operations, 1968," p. 293.


22. Ibid.; III MAF msg to CGlstMarDiv, dtd 26Dec67, End 27, 1st MarDiv, ComdC, Dec67.


23. Gen Robert E. Cushman intvw, Nov l, 1982, (OralHist Coil, MCHC, Washington, D.C.), pp. 8-9, hereafter Cushman Intvw, 1982.


24. 3d MarDiv, III MAF Campaign Plan Review, Working Paper, n.d., Subj: Command Relations with 1st ARVN Division, End 78, 3d MarDiv ComdC, Pt II, Supporting Documents, Dec67. The Enemy


Additional Sources for this section are: Douglas Pike, "The Other Side," in Peter Braestrup, ed., Vietnam as History, Ten Years After the Paris Peace Accords (Washington; D.C.: University Press of America, 1984), pp. 71-7, hereafter Pike, "The Other Side;" Robert Pringle, "NVA Order of Battle" ms, hereafter Pringle, Order of Battle;" David Fulgham, "If MACV Hasn't Said It, DIA Won't Say It;" ms; hereafter Fulgham, "If MACV Hasn't Said It"; Gen William C. Westmoreland, News Conference Folder, dtd 26Janl982.


25. Pike, "The Other Side," p. 73; Television France, Transcript of Intvw with General Giap, "La Peste Ho Chi Minh" [The Ho Chi Minh Trail], 18Feb83, "The 10,000 Day Lie," The Washington Times, dtd l6Mar83, p. 11. See also Karnow, Vietnam, pp. 257-9.


26. MACV ComdHist 1967, pp. 15-7; MACV ComdHist, 1968, pp. 60-7, 96, 103-4, 108; Pike, "The Other Side," pp. 73^; Pringle, "NVA Order of Battle."


27. Ibid.


28. MACV, Briefing on Enemy Order of Battle, dtd 23Nov67 (A&S Files, Indochina Archives), MACV ComdHist, 1967, pp.27-8; CIA, Special National Intelligence Estimate, "Capabilities of the Vietnamese Communists for Fighting in South Vietnam," dtd 13Nov67 (Westmoreland News Conference Folder, 1982); Pringle, "NVA Order of Battle;" Fulgham, "If MACV Didn't Say It."


29. Gen William C. Westmoreland, Press Statement, dtd 26Janl982 (Westmoreland News Conference Folder, 1982).


30. MACV Briefing, Nov67; MACV ComdHist, 1967, pp. 2 and 11;


Pringle, "NVA Order of Battle"; Fulgham, "If MACV Didn't Say It."


31. MACV ComdHist, 1967, pp. 2 and 11.


32. Vo Nguyen Giap, Big Victory, Great Task (New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1968), pp. 18-19.


33. War Experiences Recapitulation Committee of the High-Level Military Institute, The Anti-U.S. Resistance War for National Salvation, trans by Foreign Broadcast Information Service (Hanoi: People's Army Publishing Houses, 1980) IJoint Publications Research Service No. 80968, dtd 3Jun821, pp. 100-01. For speculation about North Vietnamese internal differences, see Pike, "The Other Side"; PJ. Honey, "The Offensive, Hanoi's Change of Strategy," clipping from China News Analysis, dtd 22Mar68 and V. Zorza, "Hints from Hanoi," Clipping Washington Post, dtd 10Oct68 (A&S Files, Indochina Archives);


Donald Oberdorfer, Tet.' (Doubleday & Company, Inc, 1971), pp. 42^6, hereafter Oberdorfer, Tet.'; Palmer, Summons of the Trumpet, 163-7; MACV ComdHist 1967, p. 74.


34. MACV ComdHist, 1967, pp. 75, 98; Telfer, Rogers, and Fleming, U.S. Marines in Vietnam, 1967, pp. 132-39; Palmer, Summons of the Trumpet, pp. 167-9; Oberdorfer, Tit!, pp. 107-8; Westmoreland, A Soldier Reports, pp. 236-9.


35. Capt Moyers S. Shore III, The Battle for Khe Sanh (Washington:


Hist&Mus Div, HQMC, 1969), pp. 26-7, hereafter Shore, Khe Sanh. 36. MACV ComdHist, 1968, pp. 128-9.


37. Krulak, First to Fight, p. 217. Focus on the North


38. Shulimson, U.S. Marines in Vietnam, 1966, pp. 139-98; Telfer, Rogers, Fleming, U.S. Marines in Vietnam, 1967, passim.


39. Shulimson, op. cit., pp. 314-18; Telfer, Rogers, and Fleming, op. cit., pp. 86-94; LtGen Louis Metzger, "Memoir," ms, pp. 57-114.


40. This and the following paragraph are derived from: The Pentagon Papers, The Defense Department History of United States Decisionmaking m Vietnam, The Senator Gravel Edition, 4 vols (Boston: Beacon Press, 1975), vol 4., pp. 285-89 hereafter, The Pentagon Papers, Gravel Edition;


MACV ComdHist, 1967, pp. 143^9; Westmoreland, A Soldier Reports, pp. 227-230; Lyndon B.Johnson, The Vantage Point, Perspectives of the Presidency, 1963-1969 (New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston, 1971), pp. 369-71, hereafter Johnson, The Vantage Point.


41. Additional source for this paragraph is III MAF ComdC, Dec67. MACV vis a vis Marines


Additional sources for this section are: Gen Wallace M. Greene, Personal Notes and Related material Pertaining to United States and Marine Corps Participation in Operations in Vietnam Binder, Gen Wallace M. Greene, Jr., Personal Papers Collection, MCHC, hereafter Operations in Vietnam Binder, Greene Papers; Victor H. Krulak Papers, hereafter Krulak Papers; Cushman intvw, 1982; MajGen Raymond L. Murray Intvw, 27Jun75 (OralHist Coil, MCHC, Washington, D.C.), hereafter Murray intvw; Senior Officers Debriefing Program, U.S. Army, Military Institute, Carlisle Bks, Pa., hereafter Senior Officers Debriefing, Carlisle.


42. For examples of General Greene's views see: CMC, Memorandum For the Record, dtd 22Jul65, Subj: Record of Conference on Southeast Asia held at White House and CMC, Memorandum for the Record, dtd 7Nov66, Subj: I Corps Estimate "Force Requirements and Long Range Estimates for I Corps, RVN" in Operations in Vietnam Binder, Greene Papers. For examples of General Krulak's views see: "A Strategic Appraisal" Dec65, Box 4, Krulak Papers; CGFMFPac, Pacific Opns; Krulak, The First to Fight, pp. 186 and 197-203. See also Shulimson, U.S. Marines in Vietnam, 1966, pp. 11-14; Jack Shulimson and Maj Edward F. Wells, "First In, First Out, The Marine Experience in Vietnam, 1965-1971," Marine Corps Gazette, Jan 84, pp. ^6-^6.


43. General Greene is quoted in Shulimson, U.S. Marines in Vietnam, 1966, p. 14. See various CMC, Memorandum for the Record in Operations in Vietnam Binder, Greene Papers relative to his efforts via the Joint Chiefs and even the President to present the Marine Corps perspective. For General Krulak, see Krulak Itr to Hon Robert S. McNamara, dtd HNov65, Box 4, Krulak Papers and Krulak, First to Fight, p. 186. Interestingly enough, former Secretary McNamara makes no mention of this letter or these conversations with Krulak in his memoir, Robert S. McNamara with Brian VanDeMark, In Retrospect, The Tragedy and Lessons of Vietnam (New York: Time Books, Random House, Inc., 1995), passim.


44. Cushman Intvw, 1982, p. 63.


45. CGFMFPac, Pacific Opns, pp. 5-7; MACV ComdHist, 1967, pp. 319-20.


46. LtGen Victor H. Krulak, Comments on draft, dtd 31Octl994 (Vietnam comment File), hereafter Krulak Comments.


47. MACV ComdHist, 1967, pp. 319-20.


48. Quoted in Shulimson, U.S. Marines in Vietnam, 1966, p. 75; III MAF ComdC, Jan68.







Page 656 (1968: The Defining Year)