Stand Watie raised and commanded the first Cherokee regiment of the Confederate Army. Stand Watie was one of four Cherokee chiefs who signed the Treaty of New Echota in 1835, which surrendered all Cherokee lands in Georgia to the United States and resulted in the forced move to Indian Territory. Four years later, Watie escaped death when the three other signers were murdered on the anniversary of the signing. When the Civil War broke out in 1861, Watie and his followers strongly supported the Confederacy. Although a Union sympathizer, Chief John Ross feared a Cherokee Civil War and allied with the Confederacy. Watie raised, and later led, the volunteer Cherokee Confederate regiment ' the Cherokee Mounted Rifles. Initially a colonel, he was promoted to brigadier general in 1864, following his participation in skirmishes in Indian Territory against other Indians loyal to the Union. He remained loyal to the Confederacy after the Cherokee tribe broke their alliance with the Confederacy in 1863. In June 1865, more than two months after Appomattox, he was the last Confederate officer to surrender his troops.