Caesar was one of the greatest generals in Rome's history; he was also a politician, author (Commentaries) and dictator. In 49 Caesar crossed the Rubicon river, the dividing line separating his lawful ruling province from Italy, leading to the outbreak of civil war. Under Caesar's leadership, Rome's territory was extended across the Rhine and to the English Channel. He conducted the first Roman invasion of the British Isles. He was assassinated on the Ides of March, March 15, 44 BCE.
His death marked the begining of the end of the Roman Republic and the begining of the Roman Empire under his nephew and heir, Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus.