Cleopatra's father, Ptolemy XII had been run out of the country for heavy taxes and allowing Rome too much control in Egypt's affairs. He bequeathed Egypt to Cleopatra after the death of her older sister. But it was a difficult position for the 17 year old. Her brother schemed to have her killed and she had to flee to Syria. She returned with an army.
Caesar entered the country about this time and when he confronted Cleopatra and Ptolemy he supported Cleopatra. Ptolemy besieged the Romans but died in the effort. Cleopatra then married Caesar and bore him a son. After Caesar's death, Cleopatra tried to repeat the pattern with Antony. But Antony lost at the battle of Actium. Both Cleopatra and Antony later committed suicide and the reign of the Ptolemy's as well as Egyptian Pharoahs came to an end.