"Nationalist Chinese leader. Was Allied commander in China during World War II. Fought a long civil war with the communists under Mao, lost, and fled to Taiwan with his army and others in 1949. Became President of Taiwan until his death in 1975. " Chiang Kai-shek joined the military at an early age. He went to Japan in 1907 and studied at the Military Staff College. While there, he met and became protege of Doctor Sun Yat-sen. He also attended military training in Moscow. Chiang participated in the overthrow of the Ch'ing (Qing) Dynasty, serving in several revolutions. The Republic was set up in Nanjing and in 1912 the Kuomintang Party under Sun was founded. Chiang opposed communism, and in 1928, became head of the Nationalist Government, and dedicated himself to suppressing Chinese Communists. His power was almost absolute. Chiang Kai-shek was unable to stop the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931, and in 1937, he was forced to work with the Chinese Communists when Japan invaded China. This agreement eventually broke down, and Chiang fought both Mao and the Japanese. He was criticized by the American General Stillwell for the way Chiang fought the war. When the Second World War ended, Chiang Kai-shek led the Nationalist Government in a civil war against the Communists led by Mao Tse-tung. The Nationalists were forced from China to Taiwan, where Chiang Kai-shek became President. He died in 1975.