The election of Abraham Lincoln to the presidency in 1860 is commonly viewed as the beginning of a chain of events that erupted into civil war in April 1861. Lincoln was the first member of the Republican Party elected to the presidency, a remarkable rise for a political party that had been in existence less than ten years. At the Republican Convention held in Chicago in 1860, Lincoln received his party’s nomination over several contenders, most notably William H. Seward of New York.
With the life of the U.S. space shuttle program ending in the next 10-15 years, much attention is being given to a replacement. Designers are building on the lessons learned from previous manned space programs, including the shuttle program, the Apollo program, and the previous, but one of the most important manned space programs, Gemini.
The cotton gin is a machine that is used to pull cotton fibers from the cotton seed. Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin in 1793 or 1794. At that time, Whitney was in the employ of Catherine Greene, the widow of General Nathaniel Greene. While there are claims that similar machines had been invented prior to Whitney’s gin, there is no firm evidence to support such claims. Whitney was thus granted a patent on March 14th, 1794, for his "new and useful improvement in the mode of Ginning cotton."
Jackson vs. Calhoun--Part 1
From the Eaton Affair to the Maysville road Bill.
It has been rare in American political history for presidents and vice-presidents not to get along or like each other, but it has happened. John Adams and Thomas Jefferson, Dwight Eisenhower and Richard Nixon, and John Kennedy and Lyndon Johnson are three pairs that come immediately to mind. However, the most contentious relationship between a chief executive and his backup might be the pair of President Andrew Jackson and Vice-president John C. Calhoun.