The Burning of the Library of Alexandria

A painting of a woman distraught at the burning of the Library of Alexandria
The loss of the ancient world's single greatest archive of knowledge, the Library of Alexandria, has been lamented for ages. But how and why it was lost is still a mystery. The mystery exists not for lack of suspects but from an excess of them.

The Development of Union Strategy

A painting of union soldiers moving on a green field with the American flag
This article explores the strategic environment facing Lincoln in 1860-61, and his development of Union strategy to suppress the rebellion.

The Duchy of Burgundy, Medieval Powerhouse

In color image of statues in the Tomb of Phillip the Bold
During the fourteenth century the French State was not cohesive and united. The existence of pseudo independent principalities created conflict and instability. The most powerful of these principalities was the duchy of Burgundy located between France and the German Empire.

The Fighting Ellets: Ingenuity, Courage, Nepotism and Corruption?

black and white image of soldiers standing around a cannon as it fires
In early 1862, the Union forces operating along the Mississippi River faced a potentially grave new threat from Confederate ironclads. Major General Charles Halleck, in command of the Department of Missouri in St. Louis, sent an urgent request to Secretary of War Edwin Stanton requesting assistance. Stanton had just the man to solve Halleck’s problem.

The Freshman

A black and white photo of a young boy in overalls and a hat smiling at the camera holding the United States flag
Simone J. Pace's story about Jack Lucas, the only high school freshman to hold the Medal of Honor.