THESE ARE ARCHIVED PAGES OF THE OLD EHISTORY SITE
These pages are not actively maintained and may have errors in content and functionality

eHistory Archive Logo
THESE ARE ARCHIVED PAGES OF THE OLD EHISTORY SITE
click here for the NEW eHistory site
These pages are not actively maintained and may have errors in content and functionality
icon: the new eHistory
click to see our Origins feature click to see our Multimedia histories click to see our Book Reviews
Ancient History Middle Ages Civil War World War II Vietnam War Middle East World
      eHistory  >  World History Search
A Moment in Time
Articles
Biographies
Books
Countries
Glossary
HistoryLists
Images & Maps
Military
Personal Histories
Timelines
Timeline - Middle Ages: 500 AD to 1500 AD
Other timelines:
   By Time Period: Ancient   Middle Ages  16th Century  17th Century  18th Century  19th Century  20th Century 21st Century
   By Topic:   Wars of the Roses   Hundred Years War   American Civil War   World War II   Middle East 


         Search timelines:
Enter word or phrase to search for. Example: Truman or Galileo

Middle Ages: 500 AD to 1500 AD Timeline

Year Government,
Politics, & War
Art & Culture Science &
Technology
Religion &
Philosophy
Daily Life &
Health
Year
 481   Clovis succeeds as king of Frankish kingdom
 
      481
 496       Clovis converted to Christianity and baptized by St. Remigius
 
  496
 502   Hsiao Yen (Wu Ti) overthrows Qi Dynasty in China; founds Liang Dynasty
 
      502
 507 Clovis defeats Visigoths at Vouillé; Unites all Frankish lands on the left bank of the Rhine
 
        507
 508   Clovis makes Lutetia (Paris) capital of Frankish kingdom
 
      508
 511   Clovis dies; Frankish kingdom divided among his four sons
 
      511
 525       (1) Cosmas Indicopleustes' Topographica Christiana attempts to demonstrate the truth of the biblical Creation story and posits a flat Earth
(2) Christian chronology established by Dionysius Exiguus
 
  525
 527   Justinian I becomes Byzantine emperor; Declares wife Theodora empress
 
      527
 529   Byzantine emperor Justinian I compiles all Roman laws in the Codex Vitus
 
  (1) Benedict of Nursia founds monastic order at Monte Casino
(2) Byzantine Emperor Justinian I closes Plato's Academy
 
  529
 532   Nike Revolt destroys large sections of Constantinople
 
      532
 533 Belisarius conquers the Vandal kingdom in North Africa for the Byzantine Empire
 
        533
 535 Belisarius conquers the Ostrogothic kingdom of Italy for Byzantine Empire
 
        535
 537       Hagia Sophia completed and dedicated in Constantinople
 
  537
 540       (1) Benedict of Nursia writes Regula monachorum to regulate daily life in the monastary
(2) Roman statesman Cassiodorus retires and founds monastery at Viverium; Becomes major center for translation of ancient Greek texts
 
  540
 541 Justinian I abandons plans to conquer Gaul and Britain after plague strikes Constantinople
 
        541
 552         Byzantine emperor Justinian I introduces silk production in Europe after smuggling silkworms out of China
 
552
 553       Procopius' Anecdota (Secret History) of the Byzantine Empire
 
  553
 558 Chlothar I temporarily reunites Clovis' Frankish kingdoms
 
        558
 561 Chlothar I dies; Frankish kingdoms are redivided
 
        561
 565   Byzantine emperor Justinian I dies after 38 year reign
 
      565
 568   Alboin founds Lombard kingdom in Italy
 
      568
 579 King Chosroes of Persia dies after 48 year reign; Reestablished Persian power from Red Sea to Oxus River
 
        579
 581   Yang Jian murders Zhou royalty; Proclaims himself emperor Wendi and begins Sui Dynasty in China
 
      581
 582       Cassiodorus' History of the Goths
 
  582
 585       Soga clan adopts Buddhism in Japan
 
  585
 587       First Buddhist monastery in Japan
 
  587
 588       Lombards convert to Christianity
 
  588
 589 Sui emperor Wendi reunites China
 
        589
 590   Gregory I becomes first monk elected pope; Lays down principles of papal authority over secular rulers
 
      590
 593 Empress Suiko becomes first Japanese ruler to gain official recognition from China
 
        593
 594       Empress Suiko of Japan converts to Buddhism
 
  594
 600     Moldboard plow introduced to Europe
 
    600
 601       The Vaghbata, a collection of Indian medical knowledge compiled
 
  601
 603       First St. Paul's Cathedral built in London
 
  603
 604   Chinese emperor Wendi murdered by Yangdi, his son; Chinese capital moved to Luoyang
 
  Japanese crown prince issues the Shotoku Taishi, which requires veneration of the Buddha and Buddhist laws
 
  604
 610       Muhammad begins preaching in Mecca
 
  610
 618   Li Yuan (later Gaozu) murders Chinese emperor Yangdi; Establishes Tang Dynasty
 
      618
 620 Persian king Chosroes II conquers Rhodes; Persian Empire reaches extent of Darius' 6th Century BCE empire
 
        620
 621         Chinese government establishes state department for the manufacture of porcelain
 
621
 622       Muhammad forced to flee Mecca for Medina; Becomes basis for Islamic tradition of the hijra
 
  622
 628 Muslim army captures Mecca
 
        628
 630       Muhammad returns to Mecca with the Koran
 
  630
 632   Muhammad dies; Abu Bakr becomes caliph in Medina
 
      632
 633       East Anglia converted to Christianity
 
  633
 634   Abu Bakr dies; Umar becomes caliph
 
      634
 636 Battle of Yarmuk; Islamic forces under Khalid ibn al-Walid conquer Syria and Palestine
 
        636
 637 Islamic armies invade Mesopotamia
 
        637
 638 Islamic forces capture Jerusalem
 
        638
 639 Islamic armies conquer Egypt
 
        639
 641   Founding of Fostat (Cairo) in Egypt
 
      641
 642 Islamic forces decisively defeat Persians at the battle of Nihawand
 
        642
 643       Construction on the Dome of the Rock begins
 
  643
 644   Caliph Umar assassinated; Uthman becomes caliph
 
      644
 645       Buddhism reaches Tibet
 
  645
 646   Japanese emperor Kotoku unites Japan and issues Taika Reform Edicts
 
      646
 651   Sassanid king Yazdegerd III assassinated; End of Sassanid Dynasty in Persia
 
      651
 656   Caliph Uthman assassinated; Ali becomes caliph
 
      656
 659       c. 659; First Shinto shrines built in Japan
 
  659
 661   Caliph Ali assassinated; Muawiyah moves capital to Damascus and founds Umayyad Dynasty
 
  Sunni and Shi'a branches of Islam split over succession to the Caliphate
 
  661
 670     Kallikinos invents Greek fire in Constantinople
 
    670
 678 Umayyad forces forced to lift siege of Constantinople after decisive naval defeat at the battle of Syllaeum
 
        678
 680 Hussein killed at battle of Karbala; Battlefield will become site for Shiite holy city
 
        680
 690       Shinto Shrine of Ise first built in its current form in Japan
 
  690
 692       Dome of the Rock is completed by Caliph Abdel-Malik
 
  692
 695         First Islamic coins minted in Damascus
 
695
 697   Dogeships in Venice
 
      697
 700   Leading Mesoamerican city of Teotihuacán destroyed
 
  Dandin's The Adventures of the Ten Princes, Sanskrit poetry
 
  700
 701   Japanese law codified by emperor Momu
 
    Arab sailors visit Moluccas and Indonesia for the first time
 
701
 710 Islamic forces conquer Tangiers; Caliphate controls entire North African coast
 
Nara becomes first permanent capital of Japan
 
      710
 711 Islamic army invades Iberian Peninsula
 
        711
 712 Muhammad ibn Kasim makes first Islamic conquests in India
 
    Ono Yasumara's Kojiki, the first written history of Japan
 
  712
 715   Charles Martel becomes Mayor of the Palace in Frankish kingdom of Austrasia
 
      715
 717 Second Siege of Constantinople; Byzantines decisively defeat Umayyad navy using Greek fire
 
        717
 718   Pelayo establishes Kingdom of Asturias after the Moors defeat the Visigothic kingdom of Spain
 
      718
 726       Byzantine emperor Leo III initiates iconoclastic movement in Constantinople
 
  726
 730       (1) Pope Gregory II excommunicates Leo III for iconoclasm
(2) Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum by Bede
 
  730
 732 Frankish army under Charles Martel defeats Umayyad army at the battle of Tours
 
        732
 741   Charles Martel dies; Frankish kingdom redivided
 
      741
 742   Charlemagne born
 
      742
 750   (1) Alfonso I establishes the Kingdom of Galicia in the Iberian Peninsula
(2) Abu al-Abbas as-Saffah overthrows Umayyad Caliphate and establishes Abbasid Dynasty
 
      750
 751   Pepin the Short becomes king of the Franks; Founds the Carolingian Dynasty
 
      751
 752       55 ft. statue of the Buddha, Rushanabutsu, completed in Japan
 
  752
 754         Chinese census records 26 cities with populations of at least 500,000
 
754
 756 Donation of Pepin creates Papal States and establishes temporal power of the papacy
 
The Umayyad Abd ar-Rahman I becomes emir of Cordoba
 
      756
 762   Caliphate moved to Baghdad
 
      762
 765     Three-field crop rotation system introduced in Europe
 
    765
 766       York becomes English center for learning
 
  766
 768   Pepin the Short dies; Charles (Charlemagne) succeeds
 
      768
 774 Charlemagne visits Rome; Absorbs Lombardy into Frankish kingdom
 
        774
 782   Execution at Verdun
 
      782
 787 Danes invade England
 
        787
 790       Carolingian Renaissance begins
 
  790
 794   Heian (Kyoto) becomes permanent capital of Japan; Will remain so until 1868
 
      794
 796       Palatine Chapel built in Aix-la-Chapelle
 
  796
 800 Pope Leo III crowns Charlemagne Emperor of the Romans
 
    Alcuin of York works on corrected version of the Bible and compiles Lives of the Saints
 
  800
 801 Charlemagne conquers Barcelona from the Moors
 
        801
 804 Charlemagne completes conquest and conversion of Saxony
 
        804
 811         Tang emperor begins issue of paper currency in China
 
811
 813     A school of astronomy established in Baghdad
 
    813
 814   Charlemagne dies; Louis I (The Pious) succeeds
 
  Doge's Palace built in Venice
 
  814
 820       Islamic law school established in Medina
 
  820
 825 King Egbert of Wessex conquers Kent, Sussex, and Essex; Wessex becomes dominant power in England
 
        825
 830       Einhard's Life of Charlemagne
 
  830
 833     Al-Mamun founds observatory in Baghdad
 
    833
 836 Vikings sack London
 
        836
 837         Carrier pigeon services established in Arab lands
 
837
 840   Louis the Pious dies; Civil war in Frankish kingdom between his sons
 
      840
 841   Vikings found Dublin in Ireland
 
      841
 843 Treaty of Verdun permanently splits Charlemagne's empire
 
Kenneth MacAlpin unites Scots and Picts, founding the medieval kingdom of Scotland
 
      843
 845       Chinese government launches persecution of Buddhists
 
  845
 850 Vikings seize Kiev; Origin of Varangian empire of the Rus
 
        850
 853     China prints first book
 
    853
 857   Kingdom of Navarre established in Spain
 
      857
 859 Arabs complete conquest of Sicily
 
        859
 862       Byzantine emperor Michael III sends Cyril and Methodius to convert slavs; Origin of Cyrillic alphabet
 
  862
 871   Alfred the Great succeeds in Wessex
 
      871
 872         Ahmad ibn Talun establishes first hospital in Cairo; Hospitals now common throughout Arab world
 
872
 874 Christians defeat Moors at Orbedo; Beginning of the Reconquista in the Iberian Peninsula
 
        874
 877   Charles II of France consolidates feudal system
 
      877
 886 Alfred the Great expels the Vikings from London; Establishes the Danelaw
 
        886
 888   Charles III dies; Frankish empire collapses; Independent kingdom of Burgundy established
 
      888
 895 Magyars raid Bulgaria; Settle in Central Europe
 
        895
 900   Approximate date for the establishment of the Toltec kingdom in Mexico
 
      900
 907   Zhuwen (Chu Wen) murders last Tang emperor of China; Beginning of the Period of The Five Dynasties and the Ten Kingdoms
 
      907
 909   Said ibn Hussein establishes Fatimid caliphate in Tunis
 
  Abbey of Cluny founded in eastern France
 
  909
 911   Norman noble Rollo converts and pays homage to Charles III of France; Origin of the Duchy of Normandy
 
      911
 912   Abd ar-Rahman III succeeds in Umayyad Spain; Brings Islamic Spain to the peak of its power and cultural influence
 
      912
 930       Althing established in Iceland; Early representative assembly in Europe
 
  930
 932     Wood-block printing in China
 
    932
 939 Ngo Quyen defeats Chinese army and establishes independent kingdom in northern Vietnam
 
        939
 942 Edmund I of England conquers the Danelaw
 
        942
 947   The Khitan establish the Liao Dynasty to rule northern China and Manchuria
 
      947
 954   King Edred seizes York and unites all England
 
      954
 955 Otto I of Germany defeats Magyar army at the battle of Lechfeld
 
        955
 956 Oghuz Turks led by Seljuk move into Transoxiana
 
        956
 960   Zhao Kuangyin founds the Song Dynasty in China
 
      960
 962   Otto I crowned Holy Roman emperor by Pope John XII; Beginning of the Holy Roman Empire
 
      962
 966   King Mieszko of Poland converts to Catholicism
 
      966
 969 Fatimids conquer Egypt and move capital to Cairo
 
        969
 982 Eric the Red begins viking invasion of Iceland
 
        982
 983   Ahmad ibn Buwayh Asud ad-Dawla rises to power in Persia; Reintroduces ancient title of Shahanshah (King of Kings)
 
      983
 984     Earliest known astrolabe, a tool for navigation, in use in Persia
 
    984
 987   Hugh Capet founds Capetian royal line in France
 
      987
 988       Vladimir the Great of Kiev converts to Christianity; Foundation of Russian Orthodox Church
 
  988
 992 Venice gains independence from Byzantine Empire
 
        992
 993       Pope John XV canonizes Ulric, bishop of Augsburg; First documented papal canonization
 
  993
 1003   Brian Boru becomes High King of Ireland
 
    Approximate date of Leif Ericson's voyages from Greenland
 
1003
 1005           1005
 1010       Robert II proclaims the 'Peace of God' in France to curb aristocratic violence
 
  1010
 1018       Council of Pavia; Pope Benedict VIII declares clerical marriage and concubinage illegal
 
  1018
 1020     Floating magnetic compass invented in China
 
    1020
 1022       Bogomils burned in France
 
  1022
 1028   Cnut unifies England, Denmark, and Norway under one crown
 
      1028
 1031 Umayyad caliphate abolished in Spain; Rise of minor Moorish kingdoms
 
        1031
 1035 King Cnut dies; England, Denmark, and Norway redivided
 
Kingdom of Aragon established in Spain
 
      1035
 1037   Kingdom of Castile-Leon established in Spain
 
      1037
 1040 Seljuk Turks conquer territories in Persia
 
        1040
 1048 Seljuk Turks sack Erzurum; Maintain presence in Anatolia
 
    Henry III appoints Pope Clement II
 
  1048
 1050 Tughril Beg conquers Isfahan and establishes Seljuk capital there
 
  Astrolabe used in Europe
 
    1050
 1051       Cathars executed in Germany
 
  1051
 1052       Construction on Westminster Abby begins
 
  1052
 1054       Pope Leo IX and the Patriarch of Constantinople excommunicate each other; Final step in the Great Schism between the Catholic and Orthodox churches
 
  1054
 1055 Seljuk Turks conquer Baghdad; Tughril Beg becomes sultan
 
        1055
 1057           1057
 1061 The Norman conquest of Arab-controlled Sicily
 
        1061
 1065       Westminster Abby consecrated
 
  1065
 1066 William the Conqueror defeats Harold at the battle of Hastings; Normans conquer England
 
        1066
 1071 Seljuk army decisively defeats Byzantine army at battle of Manzikert; Conquer parts of Anatolia and Syria
 
        1071
 1075 Pope Gregory VII decrees papal supremacy in Dictatus papae; Beginning of Investiture Controversy between the Pope and Holy Roman Emperor
 
        1075
 1078       Construction on the Tower of London begins
 
  1078
 1079       Peter Abelard born
 
  1079
 1080       The Bayeux Tapestry, which depicts the Norman conquest of England, is commissioned
 
  1080
 1085   William I of England commissions the Domesday Book
 
      1085
 1087   William the Conqueror of England dies; William II succeeds to English throne
 
      1087
 1090   Yusuf ibn Tasfin founds Almoravid Dynasty in Granada
 
      1090
 1091 Roger Guiscard completes the Norman conquest of Sicily
 
        1091
 1092   Sultan Malik Shah dies; Seljuk empire collapses into civil war
 
      1092
 1094   Pope Urban II expels antipope Clement III from Rome
 
      1094
 1095       Pope Urban II proclaims First Crusade against Islamic conquests in the Middle East
 
  1095
 1099 Crusaders capture Jerusalem; First Crusade ends
 
Godfrey of Bouillon founds Kingdom of Jerusalem from crusader conquests in Palestine
 
  The Order of the Knights Hospitaller chartered in Jerusalem to protect pilgrims to the Holy Land
 
  1099
 1100       Baptistery in Florence built
 
  1100
 1115       Peter Abelard becomes chair of theology at Notre Dame
 
  1115
 1119       The Knights Templar founded in Jerusalem
 
  1119
 1122 Concordat of Worms ends the Investiture Controversy between the Pope and Holy Roman Emperor
 
The Jürchen found the Jin (Chin) Dynasty in northern China
 
      1122
 1123       The First Lateran Council condemns simony and clerical marriage in Europe
 
  1123
 1129     First use of flying buttresses in construction of St. Denis
 
    1129
 1134   Emperor Lothair III makes Albrecht head of the Nordmark; Origin of the House of Brandenburg
 
      1134
 1138           1138
 1145     First recorded autopsy performed in China
 
Pope Eugene III proclaims Second Crusade to recapture Crusader Kingdom of Edessa
 
  1145
 1150     Chinese develop rockets
 
    1150
 1152   Eleanor of Aquitaine marries Henry of Anjou
 
      1152
 1154   Henry of Anjou becomes king of England; First Plantagenet king of England and beginning of the Angevin empire
 
      1154
 1157   Bank of Venice established; Venice emerging as major center of finance and trade
 
      1157
 1166   At Clarendon, Henry II of England presides over major legal reforms; Origins of English common law
 
      1166
 1168   Toltec Empire destroyed in Mesoamerica
 
      1168
 1169   Saladin becomes vizir of Egypt
 
      1169
 1170 The Almohads move their capital to Seville; The Almohad Dynasty has conquered much of North African and consolidated the smaller Islamic kingdoms in Spain
 
    Thomas Becket murdered by nobles loyal to King Henry II of England
 
  1170
 1171   Last Fatimid caliph of Egypt dies leaving Saladin as effective ruler
 
      1171
 1173       Thomas Becket canonized
 
  1173
 1175 Saladin recognized as sultan of Egypt and Syria
 
        1175
 1179       Third Lateran Council declares crusade against Albigensian heresy
 
  1179
 1180     First windmill in Europe constructed in Normandy
 
    1180
 1181   c. 1181-1206; Reign of Jayavarman VII in Cambodia; Establishes Khmer capital at Angkor Thom
 
      1181
 1183 (1) Peace of Constance confirms the autonomy of Italian cities from Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I (Barbarossa)
(2) Saladin captures Aleppo; Moves his capital to Damascus
 
        1183
 1185   Minamoto Yaritomo becomes effective ruler of Japan
 
      1185
 1187 (1) Pope Gregory VIII calls for Third Crusade to halt Saladin's conquests in the Middle East
(2) Saladin captures Jerusalem from the European crusaders
 
        1187
 1188 Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I (Barbarossa) leads crusader army from Germany
 
        1188
 1189   Richard I assumes English throne
 
      1189
 1190 Emperor Frederick I drowns while crossing the Saleph River; German crusader army disintegrates
 
Teutonic Knights established
 
      1190
 1191 Crusading army under Richard I of England captures Acre and defeats Saladin's army at Arsuf
 
        1191
 1192 Richard I of England and Saladin sign truce which allows Christian access to Jerusalem; Richard leaves the Holy Land
 
Minamoto Yaritomo adopts the title Shogun; Creates Shogunate government which will last until 1868
 
      1192
 1193 Saladin dies
 
        1193
 1196   Choe Chong-hon reunites Korea
 
      1196
 1199   Richard I of England dies; Brother John succeeds to English throne
 
      1199
 1200       Lay order of the Beguines founded in Liège
 
  1200
 1203   Mongol prince Temüjin takes title of Genghis Khan
 
      1203
 1204 Crusaders capture and sack Constantinople; Baldwin count of Flanders crowned Latin Emperor and Byzantine territory partitioned with Venice
 
        1204
 1208       Pope Innocent III declares crusade against Albigensian heresy in Languedoc
 
  1208
 1209       Foundation of Cambridge University
 
  1209
 1210       Foundation of the Franciscan Order
 
  1210
 1211 Genghis Khan conquers Kara-Khitai empire in Turkestan and invades China
 
        1211
 1212 Alfonso VIII of Castile and Sancho VII of Navarre decisively defeat Almohad army at battle of Las Navas de Tolosa
 
    Failed Children's Crusade in Europe
 
  1212
 1214 Philip II of France decisively defeats Emperor Otto IV at battle of Bouvines; Confirms French conquest of Normandy and other English territories
 
        1214
 1215 Mongols under Genghis Khan sack Beijing
 
King John of England and English barons sign the Magna Carta
 
      1215
 1216       Foundation of the Dominican Order
 
  1216
 1222 Genghis Khan conquers Khwarezmid Empire (Afghanistan)
 
The Golden Bull of 1222 confirms the rights and privileges of the Hungarian nobility
 
      1222
 1225       (1) Western façade of Notre Dame Cathedral completed
(2) Francis of Assisi's Canticle to Brother Sun
 
  1225
 1226 The Golden Bull of Rimini authorizes the Teutonic Knights to conquer and convert pagan Prussian tribes in the Baltic
 
        1226
 1227 Genghis Khan dies; Mongol empire divided among his sons
 
        1227
 1231       Gregory IX establishes the Papal Inquisition
 
  1231
 1236 Ferdinand III of Castile conquers Muslim Cordoba
 
        1236
 1238 (1) Mohammed ibn Nasr founds Nasrid Dynasty in Granada
(2) Mongol leader Batu Khan sacks Vladimir; Establishes the Golden Horde
 
        1238
 1239   Louis IX holds the first parlement in France
 
      1239
 1241   Association of Hamburg and Lübeck lays foundation for the Hanseatic League
 
      1241
 1252         First gold florins minted in Florence
 
1252
 1257   First recorded meeting of the seven Electors of the Holy Roman Empire
 
      1257
 1258   English barons force Henry III to agree to the Provisions of Oxford, which call for the meeting of parliament at three-year intervals
 
      1258
 1259 Henry III of England renounces claims to Normandy and other Angevin territories in France
 
        1259
 1260 Mamluks defeat Mongol army at Ain Jalut; Egypt avoids conquest
 
Kublai Khan becomes Emperor of China
 
  Chartres Cathedral consecrated
 
  1260
 1261   Michael VIII Palaeogus restores Byzantine authority in Constantinople
 
      1261
 1265       Dante born
 
  1265
 1266       Thomas Aquinas begins work on his Summa theologica
 
  1266
 1274   (1) Rudolf I becomes first Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor
(2) Edward I crowned King of England
 
  Thomas Aquinas dies
 
  1274
 1275         Marco Polo arrives at Kublai Khan's court in China
 
1275
 1276   Ottokar of Bohemia surrenders lands to Emperor Rudolf I; Beginning of Habsburg Dynasty in Austria
 
      1276
 1277 Edward I of England conquers Wales
 
        1277
 1279 Kublai Khan completes the Mongol conquest of China
 
        1279
 1280     First recorded spinning wheel in Germany
 
    1280
 1281 Typhoon destroys Mongol invasion fleet off the coast of Japan; Japanese call it Kamikaze (Divine Wind)
 
        1281
 1282 Beginning of the War of the Sicilian Vespers
 
        1282
 1284         First recorded use of reading glasses in Venice
 
1284
 1285     William of St. Cloud observes the sun through a camera obscura
 
    1285
 1289     The Grand Canal completed in China
 
    1289
 1290       Edward I expels the Jews from England
 
  1290
 1291 Mamluks destroy Acre and end the existence of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem
 
        1291
 1294   Kublai Khan dies
 
      1294
 1295 France and Scotland form alliance against England; Origin of the "Auld Alliance"
 
    Marco Polo returns from China
 
  1295
 1296 Edward I of England defeats Scottish army at Dunbar; Scottish king John Balliol abdicates
 
        1296
 1297 William Wallace leads uprising in Scotland; Defeats English army at Stirling Bridge
 
        1297
 1298 Edward I of England defeats William Wallace at Falkirk
 
    Marco Polo's Travels to Tartary and China
 
  1298
 1302 (1) Papal and Neapolitan armies destroyed by malaria; Truce ends the War of the Sicilian Vespers
(2) Fleming militiamen defeat French army at Courtrai
 
First recorded meeting of the French Estates-General
 
  Boniface VIII asserts papal supremacy over secular power in the bull, Unam sanctum
 
  1302
 1305 William Wallace executed in London
 
        1305
 1307   Edward I of England dies in Scotland; Edward II succeeds and withdraws English forces from Scotland
 
  Dante's Divina Commedia (Divine Comedy)
 
  1307
 1309       Pope Clement V moves the papacy to Avignon, France
 
  1309
 1314 Robert the Bruce defeats English army at Bannockburn; English forces withdraw from Scotland
 
Knights Templars disbanded, Grand Master Molay burned
 
      1314
 1315 Swiss militia defeat Habsburg army at Morgarten and secure Swiss autonomy
 
        1315
 1324   Ghazi Orkhan succeeds Osman I as Ottoman sultan
 
First forged iron cannons made in France
 
    1324
 1325   Aztecs settle in Tenochtitlán
 
      1325
 1326   Edward II of England deposed by Queen Isabella and discontented barons
 
      1326
 1327   Edward II of England executed; Isabella and Roger Mortimer control regency government of Edward III
 
      1327
 1328 Edward III recognizes Scottish independence
 
(1) Charles IV of France dies, ending the Capetian Dynasty; Philip of Valois succeeds
(2) Grand Prince of Vladimir Alexander III dies; Ivan I succeeds, marking rise of Moscow as leading power in Russia
 
      1328
 1331 Ottoman Turks capture Nicaea, the last remaining Byzantine territory in Asia
 
        1331
 1333         Bubonic plague strikes China
 
1333
 1336   Hindu rebellion against Muslim rule in India; Harihara I founds Vijayanagar Dynasty
 
      1336
 1337 Philip VI of France confiscates English territory in Gascony; Beginning of the Hundred Years War
 
        1337
 1338 (1) Edward III of England lands in Antwerp with his army
(2) Holy Roman Emperor Louis IV supports Edward III's claim to the French throne
 
        1338
 1340 (1) Edward III declares himself King of France
(2) Battle of Sluys
 
  First European manufacture of cast iron in Liège
 
    1340
 1341 English garrison expelled from Edinburgh, Scotland
 
    Petrarch crowned in Rome
 
  1341
 1342 Scottish troops take Roxburgh; English expelled from Scotland
 
        1342
 1346 English defeat French at battle of Crécy; Emergence of the English longbow
 
      The Black Death (bubonic plague) breaks out in Tatar army at Kaffa
 
1346
 1347         Bubonic plague first arrives in Europe
 
1347
 1348         Bubonic plague spreads to France and Spain
 
1348
 1349         The Black Death spreads to England, Scandinavia, and Germany
 
1349
 1353       Boccaccio's The Decameron
 
  1353
 1356 (1) Emperor Charles IV issues Golden Bull establishing a system of seven Electors in the Holy Roman Empire
(2) English longbowmen defeat French army at the Battle of Poiters; French King John II captured and held for ransom
 
        1356
 1358   (1) Jacquerie peasant insurrection in France
(2) Étienne Marcel murdered in Paris
 
      1358
 1360 Timur begins rise to military prominence; Conquers Transoxiana
 
        1360
 1361         Bubonic plague returns to Europe
 
1361
 1363 John II gives Burgundy to son Philip; Burgundy will emerge as independent rival to French throne
 
        1363
 1364   (1) John II dies in captivity in England and given lavish funeral; Charles V succeeds to French throne
(2) Tenochtitlan (Mexico City) becomes Aztec capital
 
  Papal Palace completed in Avignon, France
 
  1364
 1365 Charles V recognizes John de Montfort as Duke of Brittany in the Treaty of Guérande; End of the Breton War of Succession
 
        1365
 1368   Zhu Yuanzhang (Chu Yuan-chang) expels Mongols from Beijing; Founds Ming Dynasty
 
      1368
 1370       Hubert van Eyck born
 
  1370
 1371 Ottoman army under Murad I defeats Byzantine army at battle of Chernomen; Ottomans conquer most of the Balkans
 
        1371
 1377       (1) End of Babylonian Captivity for Roman Catholic Church
(2) Filippo Brunelleschi, early Renaissance architect and engineer born
 
  1377
 1378       (1) Ghiberti born
(2) The Great Schism & the election of Clement VII
 
  1378
 1381   Wat Tyler's Rebellion
 
      1381
 1382       Bible translated into English by Wycliffe
 
  1382
 1386 Old Swiss Confederation defeats Habsburg army at the Battle of Sempach
 
    Last pagan ruler in Europe, Jogalia of Lithuania, converts to Christianity; Foundation of Polish-Lithuanian dynastic union
 
  1386
 1389 Ottoman army under Murad I defeats Serbian army at the battle of Kosovo; Ottoman Empire conquers Serbia
 
Cosimo de Medici born
 
      1389
 1390       Jan Van Eyck born
 
  1390
 1396     Johann Gutenberg born (circa)
 
    1396
 1397 Treaty of Kalmar stipulates perpetual union of the kingdoms of Denmark, Sweden & Norway
 
        1397
 1399   Henry Bolingbroke of the House of Lancaster deposes Richard II of England; Crowned Henry IV
 
      1399
 1402     Canary Islands discovered
 
    1402
 1408     Windmills in Holland
 
    1408
 1414 1414-1418; Council of Constance resolves the Western Schism of the Catholic Church
 
        1414
 1415 (1) Frederick VI of the House of Hohenzollern recognized as Margrave and Prince-elector of Brandenburg
(2) English army under Henry V decisively defeats French army at the Battle of Agincourt
 
    John Huss burned at the stake
 
  1415
 1419 John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy assassinated by servants of the Dauphin Charles
 
  First European school of navigation founded in Portugal by Prince Henry the Navigator
 
    1419
 1423 Venetian-Turkish Wars begin
 
        1423
 1428 (1) Vietnam gains independence from Ming China
(2) English army begins siege of Orleans
 
        1428
 1432     Azores discovered by Gonzalo Cabral of Portugal
 
    1432
 1436       Verrocchio born
 
  1436
 1438     Beginnings of printing in Europe
 
Charles VII and the Pragmatic Sanction
 
  1438
 1444       Botticelli born
 
  1444
 1446       Filippo Brunelleschi, early Renaissance architect and engineer dies
 
  1446
 1447       Pope Nicholas V, the Builder Pope
 
  1447
 1450       Florence becomes center of Italian Renaissance
 
  1450
 1451     (1) Christopher Columbus born
(2) Amerigo Vespucci born
 
    1451
 1452       (1) Leonardo da Vinci born
(2) Ghiberti's Gates of Paradise
 
  1452
 1453 (1) Turks capture Constantinople and end the Byzantine Empire
(2) French army defeats English at Castillon; End of English presence in Aquitaine
(3) French forces enter Bordeaux; End of the Hundred Years' War
 
        1453
 1454 The Treaty of Lodi establishes peace and a stable political framework in Italy
 
        1454
 1455       Pope gives approval to the slave trade
 
  1455
 1462   Ivan III begins uniting Russia
 
      1462
 1464   Cosimo de Medici dies
 
      1464
 1465       Erasmus born
 
  1465
 1466       Donatello dies
 
  1466
 1468   Treaty of Peronne
 
Johann Gutenberg dies
 
    1468
 1469       Florence at its cultural height
 
  1469
 1471       Albrecht Durer born
 
  1471
 1473     Copernicus born
 
    1473
 1475       Michelangelo born
 
  1475
 1477 Charles the Bold killed in Switzerland; Burgundian territories divided between French and Habsburgs
 
        1477
 1478       Pope Sixtus IV ratifies the Spanish Inquisition
 
  1478
 1482 Battle of Alhama de Granada
 
        1482
 1483       Martin Luther born
 
  1483
 1484       Birth of Venus by Botticelli
 
  1484
 1485   Henry Tudor defeats and kills Richard III at battle of Bosworth; Tudor crowned Henry VII
 
      1485
 1488       Verrocchio dies
 
  1488
 1492 Spanish forces conquer final Moorish stronghold in Granada
 
Lorenzo de Medici dies
 
Columbus discovers America
 
    1492
 1494       Savonarola's Reforms
 
  1494
 1496     Vasco da Gama sails to India and back to Portugal
 
    1496
 1497     The Cabots reach America
 
    1497
 1498     (1) Vasco de Gama reaches India by sea
(2) Columbus reaches South America
 
Albrecht Durer's Self Portrait
 
  1498
 1499       Michelangelo's Pietà
 
  1499
Year Government,
Politics, & War
Art & Culture Science &
Technology
Religion &
Philosophy
Daily Life &
Health
Year

Go here for timeline sources.



About | Contact


All images and content are the property of eHistory at The Ohio State University unless otherwise stated.
Copyright © 2014 OSU Department of History. All rights reserved.
THESE ARE ARCHIVED PAGES OF THE OLD EHISTORY SITE
These pages are not actively maintained and may have errors in content and functionality