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Emperor, Flavius V. Constantinus, (Constantine The Great)
  Known as:   Constantine The Great
 
  Category:   Roman Emperor
 
  Born:   c. 27 Feb 272  at  Naissus, Serbia  
 
  Died:   22 May 337  at  Nicomedia, Byzantium  

Overview:   Constantine became the first Christian Roman Emperor and his founding of the city of Constantinople brought about the beginning of the East Roman Empire which today we call Byzantium.
 
Biography:   Constantine's exposure to imperial life began early when he was taken to the court of Diocletian. While serving in the imperial guard of emperor Numerian, Diocletian rose to the rank of commander. In 284 Numerian was found dead whereupon Diocletian proceeded to execute Numerian's father-in-law and praetorian prefect Lucius Flavius Aper, blaming him for Numerian's death. Next, Diocletian defeated Carinus (co-emperor with Numerian) and thereafter assumed imperial power. (3)
Diocletian's first order of business was to establish what became known as the Tetrarchy, the division of the empire between two Augusti (emperors) and two Ceasars (sub emperors). He envisioned an easier management of the Roman world, especially when dealing with the Germanic tribes in the northern frontier and the Persians in the eastern. He chose Maximiam as his fellow Augustus and assigned him the western half of the empire. Maximiam reigned in Milan while Diocletian ruled the eastern half from his capital in Nicomedia. (4)
In 293 Constantius I Chlorus, Constantine's father, became Ceasar under Maximian, while Galerius served under Diocletian. Both Ceasars were immediately married into the Augusti families, Constantius to Maximiam's stepdaughter Flavia Theodora while Galerius was married off to Galeria Valeria, Diocletian's daughter. (5)
Constantine remained with Diocletian, and life in the palace had a strong influence on his thinking and development. He received some education and traveled frequently with the Augustus. Later on he served in his bodyguard detachment and then on Galerius' becoming a successful officer. While serving under Galerius he fought the Persians in 297-298. (6)
The future emperor, as described by contemporary sources, wore his hair to the shoulder and loved to put on jewelry, including jeweled robes. He wore a gemmed, high crested helmet, which he replaced later by a pearl-decked diadem. This helmet was the prototype of the future Byzantine crown. (7)
Besides being an outstanding general, Constantine also excelled as an organizer, leader and administrator, possessing a wealth of energy. He loved to chat with his troops inspiring loyalty in return. Throughout his life he worked hard to learn as much as possible. He was also ambitious, religious to the point of being superstitious and very emotional, always striving for personal success at all costs. Because he wanted to be popular he was easily deceived and taken advantage of. He suffered from fits of anger brought about from a highly suspicious and jealous mind, occasionally resorting to murder. (8)
Constantine's main impact on history was his conversion to Christianity, becoming the first Christian Roman emperor. However, his conversion came as an adult and earlier his two favorite pagan gods were Mars and Apollo. Worship of the Sun- a very popular belief at the time throughout the empire, appealed to Constantine. (9) The transition to Christianity was made easier on Constantine probably due to the similarities between the worship of Sol Invictus (Unconquered Son) and Christianity, such as the Sunday mass and the divine celebrations around Christmas. (10)
Constantine also lived in an era when visions were a popular conviction, and he saw them throughout his life. His most famous vision was of the cross in the sky bearing the inscription "Hoc signo victor eris" ('by this sign you will conquer') just before the Battle of the Milvian Bridge. (11) Out of this revelation Constantine fashioned the labarum- a long golden spear, joined by a traverse bar where a silk cloth hung, decorated in precious stones and with a monogrammed wreath (of Christ's name) at the top, which he took on all future military campaigns. The labarum later became the banner of the Byzantine Empire. (12)

Diocletian expected the tetrarchy to become an enduring establishment, about every twenty years the two Augusti were to retire and their chosen Ceasars promoted to Augusti, who would then appoint two new Ceasars. (13) With that in mind, he and Maximian abdicated their posts in 305. The new Augusti were now Constantius I Chlorus and Galerius. To the surprise and dissatisfaction of many in Galerius' army, he did not promote Constantine to the rank of Ceasar. The new Ceasars were: Flavius Valerius Severus- friend and companion of Galerius, and Galerius Valerius Maximus II Daia- Galerius nephew. (14)
In 306 Constantine departed west to join his father. Shortly thereafter Constantius I Chlorus died. Constantius' troops immediately hailed Constantine as the new Augustus. Galerius, even if displeased by the news, granted him the title of Ceasar. However, he was to report to Severus who was now promoted to Augustus and responsible for the western empire. Not feeling yet strong enough to protest, Constantine accepted the status quo. (15)
In the meantime, Maxentius- the son of Maximian who also had been passed over for promotion, rebelled in the city of Rome on 28 Oct 306. He asked Constantine for help. Maximian, who was not pleased with Diocletian's decision of force retirement, resumed the throne and joined forces with Constantine and Maxentius, proclaiming Constantine Augustus on 31 Mar 307 and marrying him to his daughter Fausta. (16)
Both Severus and Galerius invaded Italy in an attempt to defeat Maxentius. Both failed. Severus surrendered to Maximian and was eventually put to death by Maxentius. Galerius halted his invasion out of fear of Constantine, and then retreated.
Galerius summoned all the leaders (with the exception of Maxentius) on 18 Nov 308 to a conference in Garmuntum, on the river Danube, and attended by Diocletian. Galerius asked Diocletian to return to power, but he refused. A few years later Diocletian passed away. However, with Diocletian's approval, Galerius proceeded to appoint Licinius- his comrade-in-arms as Augustus of the east. Once again Constantine was demoted from Augustus to Ceasar. Both he and Daia refused to accept the new titles and soon after continued calling themselves Augustus. (17) Galerius had no choice but to accept their entitlements, as well as keeping Licinius as Augustus but now only in charge of the Illyrian provinces. (18)
Maximian rebelled against Constantine two years later, but was easily defeated and forced to commit suicide. By now Constantine decided to eliminate the tetrarchy and establish one emperor basing his right to the throne on the claim that he was a descendant of emperor Claudius II Gothicus. Upon this both Licinius and Maxentius also claimed imperial backgrounds, with Maxentius' assertion the better one since he was the son of Maximian. Of the two, Maxentius posed the biggest threat to Constantine as he also ruled North Africa where in 310 he successfully ended an uprising. (19)
Due to severe taxation and property confiscations, Maxentius lost much support in Rome where he ruled. In 311 Galerius passed away and Maxentius, to counteract the closer ties between Constantine and Licinius (Licinius married Constantine's half-sister) (20), joined forces with Maximinus II Daia. (21) Because of Maxentius jealousies of Constantine's successes in the north, his desire to payback Constantine for Maximian's death, and Constantine's inability to accept another competitor in the western empire, hostilities finally broke out. (22)
Fearing an attack from the east by Licinius, Maxentius kept a large garrison in Rome. In 311, Constantine came down from the Alps and began attacking the northern Italian cities. Maxentius ordered his praetorian prefect to fortified those cities. Constantine is believed to have had at his disposal around 90,000 infantry and 8,000 cavalry, however Maxentius greatly outnumbered him. (23)
Constantine took Susa and Turin where he prohibited his soldiers from ransacking since he wanted the citizens to know he was a liberator, not a conqueror. Milan, Brescia, Verona (where the praetorian prefect was killed), Modena and Aguileia fell. By Mid-October 312 the road to Rome lay open. Problem was, Maxentius was still there and in control of a heavily fortified city. Nevertheless, believing that good omens favored him, Maxentius left the safety of the fortified city to confront the invaders. The decision proved disastrous. The engagement took place near the Milvian Bridge, destroyed by Maxentius but hastily replaced with one made of boats. The battle ensued and Maxentius left flank was turned. The weight of too many soldiers sank the bridge and countless drowned. One being Maxentius himself. His body was recovered, his head removed, then mounted on a lance and paraded triumphantly by Constantine's men. (24)
To the grievance and irritation of both Daia and Licinius, the Roman senate proclaimed Constantine Maximus Augustus. Not long after, in 313, Licinius fought Daia and defeated him- Daia died during the engagement. Licinius then assumed lordship over the entire eastern Roman Empire. (25)
It was inevitable that both Constantine and Licinius would fight each other. Moving closer to Constantine's border, Licinius took with him a combined force of 35,000 infantry and cavalry against 20,000 for Constantine. Around October 316, Constantine struck first, during the night, and forced Licinius to retreat. Licinius headed east with Constantine on his heels. A second engagement took place; Licinius was again defeated and escaped, moving away from the city of Byzantium. Constantine captured the city and the war came to an end. After agreeing to a peace treaty Constantine ruled most of the Roman Empire. Licinius however, controlled a large segment of the army and the wealth of the East, making him a formidable opponent (26). Under the agreement between Constantine and Licinius, their respective first sons were name Ceasar: Crispus and Licianianus. (27) Crispus, ruling from Trier, governed Britain, Gaul and Spain. (28)

Now that he ruled most of the empire alone, the first problem to occupy Constantine from 318 to 320 was the dispute within the Christian church. The main reason for his conversion to Christianity had been his desire to bring unity to the Roman world and to do it by having just one religion, closely subordinated to the state. However, to his great disappointment- and the greatest of his life, Christianity broke up into several ideological groups. Two of those groups were the Donatists and the Arians. (29)
On November 316 the Donatists, based in North Africa, were attacked after refusing to remove their sects from the churches. Persecution continued until May of the following year when Constantine put an end to it. Violence failed to stop them and they flourished, outliving Constantine. (30)
Arius, a presbyter in Alexandria, proposed that Jesus was less supreme than God; and that while God always existed, Christ did not. (31) Arianism was thus born. Constantine issued several public statements in 323 and 324 in an effort to unite the Christian church. (32)
In 325, the First Council of Nicaea was convened by Constantine to address church disunity. The main item on the agenda was Arianism. Arius, refusing to accept the divinity of Jesus Christ or the equality of Father and Son, was excommunicated. (33) Unfortunately for Constantine, Arianism did not go away. In 327, during the Second Council of Nicaea, Arius and his supporters were readmitted; to the detriment of the Bishop of Alexandria- Athanasius, who supported the orthodox view. (34)

Besides dealing with a divided church, Constantine also dealt with the barbarian threat. He launched several campaigns against the Visigoths in 323, 328 and 332, after which they surrendered. Constantine and Licinius later employed many Visigoths as warriors in their respective armies. (35)
While dealing with the Visigoths, Constantine confronted the Sarmatians, defeating them in 322. After conquering both groups, he allowed them to settle in his territories. The Sarmatians immigrated in large numbers, approximately 300,000. For Constantine there were several reasons for letting these tribes into Roman territory: more land was cultivated, the military was re-stocked with fresh recruits, and potential enemies were disarmed. (36)

As Constantine slowly brought calm to the northern frontier peace with Licinius deteriorated. Hostilities resumed around 324. This time Licinius had at his disposal 150,000 infantry and 15,000 cavalry, while Constantine employed 120,000 infantry and 10,000 cavalry. On July 3rd both forces engaged in combat and again Licinius was defeated. It is estimated that he lost 34,000 men. Licinius then moved to Byzantium and prepare the city for a siege. Crispus, Constantine's son, defeated Licinius naval force and the way to Byzantium was opened. Licinius abandoned the city and in mid-September the last battle was fought in Chrysopolis. This time Licinius lost between 25,000 and 30,000 men. His wife, Constantia-half sister of Constantine, persuaded Licinius to surrender. He did and was promptly sent to exile in Thessalonica. A year later he and his son were executed. Now Constantine had sole, unchallenged control of the whole empire. (37)
Once the threat of Licinius had been put to rest, Constantine returned to the northern frontier. Taxes were raised to shore up the river fleet on the Rhine and to built several fortresses along the Roman side of the river. Several years of peace followed due in part to the conflicts among the Germanic tribes and to Constantine's fortifications. (38)

Another military achievement by Constantine was the division of the army into two groups: the limitanei and the comitatenses. The limitanei guarded the frontiers, while the comitatenses remained in the rear. Some historians have criticized this division for precipitating the downfall of the western empire as the limitanei were too weak to resist Germanic invasions and the comitantenses infuriated and interfered with the general population. (39)
Diocletian is credited with the organization of the empire and Constantine left it more or less alone. One task Diocletian started was the separation of military positions from civilian ones and Constantine continue to improve on it. (40) Provincial governors rarely were allowed to hold military posts in their own provinces. Provinces were reduced in size and as a result there were more of them. Separating governors and generals made them weaker and unable to mount rebellions against the emperor. Praetorian prefects could no longer command troops and were now in charge of fiscal, judicial and administrative tasks. (41) Constantine abolished the Praetorian Guard and replaced it with the Scholae, a new cavalry unit deployed as his guard. (42)
Other government officials under Constantine were: Men of Affairs (agents in rebus)- couriers and spies; chief legal officer (quaestor sacri palatti)- responsible for drafting edicts as well as petitions; Master of Officer (magister officideum)- in charge of the emperor's personal guard; revenue officers (comes rei privatae and comes sacranum largitio)- they handled revenues and expenditures in gold and silver; (43) and the grand chamberlain (praepositus sacri cubiculi)- a very powerful office holder responsible for the emperor and empress. The grand chamberlain, as well as most members of the imperial bodyguard, was a eunuch. (44)
The senate was increased from 600 to 2000 members and many belonged to a new order of imperial companions called the comites consistorii. A majority were landowners and earned their income from their properties. (45) The comites owed allegiance to the emperor. The sacrum consistorium was the emperor's personal advisory council with close ties to other officials, but always controlled by the emperor himself. (46)

Constantine spent funds liberally on building programs, payoffs to the barbarians, the army, almsgiving to the poor, subsidies in grain and wine to several Italian cities for the services they provided and excessive support to his associates. As a result, taxes- very high during the reign of Diocletian, rose even higher. The collatio lustralis, also known as the chrysargyron (the gold and silver tax- it could be paid with either metal) was the most severe. Manufacturers and merchants carried the brunt of this tax and were assessed not only on their own person, but their family, staff and capital equipment as well. Many were tortured, imprisoned or both trying to pay it. Tradesmen in the cities raised fees and the rural population, unable to afford their goods and services, were reduced to extreme poverty. (47)
Aware of the privation the chrysargyron had on his people, Constantine took several measures to alleviate the suffering. First he cancelled some overdue taxes. Second he disallowed the use of torture and those sentenced to prison should be taken to spacious and well ventilated cells. And finally, he established the office of the peraequator census to hear appeals on tax liability. (48)

In 310 Constantine introduced a gold coin with slightly lower weight called solidus. It was used to pay senior officials, five-year bonuses for the troops, and to payoff the barbarians. (49) The solidus retained the value given to it by Constantine for most of the history of Byzantium. (50) Payment to the regular troops and to buy supplies was done using silver coins. The rest of the population had to live with the much-devalued bronze coins, pushing inflation ever higher. (51)
In general, Constantine failed to improve the economic life of his citizens, specially the poor. (52) Several edicts by Constantine made matters worse for the poor. They were forced to remain in their occupations, whether butcher or farmer, and severely punished if they escaped. As a result, more and more chose to get involve in criminal acts, mainly toward the empire. (53)
Just as bad as taxes and the economy, corruption in all sectors of government was widespread. Judges were bought, superiors cheated on soldiers, provincial governors sold jobs, postal administrators exploited travelers, and church offices were available to the highest bidder. Constantine passed several edicts against corruption, but for the most part they were ignored. (54)

One area where Constantine spent excessively was in the building trade, especially in his new capital- Constantinople. His selection of the old city of Byzantium was twofold: its strategic location and the place where he finally defeated Licinius in 324. Old Byzantium was not only easily defended by land and sea, but also centrally located to the cultural and industrial centers of Asia Minor. Furthermore, the grain supplies from Egypt where within easy reach. Constantine not only spent large sums on both secular and religious buildings, but also on land grants and food rations to encourage immigration to the new capital. (55) On 11 May 330 Constantinople was dedicated, followed by forty days of celebration. (56)
Not only did Constantine bid new buildings constructed in Constantinople, but also throughout the empire- from Rome and Naples, to Carthage and Trier. Many were Christian churches, with no new pagan temples built or repaired. The basilica was the most popular style chosen. These buildings were oblong, with side-aisles and divided off from the central nave by arched colonnades. Many of these features were copied from former pagan basilicas. Architects, engineers and surveyors enjoyed special privileges as there were few of them and the emperor hoped that these privileges would encourage more people to join the professions. (57)

Another aspect of government distracting the emperor was religion. Constantine believed he ruled by the grace of God and as God's representative on Earth any disobedience to him was sacrilege. Aside from his affection for God, he was also afraid of him if he did the wrong thing. This affection did not cross over to Jesus, as he took little interest in him. To him the cross was more a magic symbol confirming his victories than one of suffering. His knowledge of the Bible was scant however; he spent countless hours in theological study, especially as he grew older. His lack of know-how put him at the mercy of any theologian who caught his ear. (58) As much as Christianity was spreading, and as much as he would like to make it the sole religion of the state, Constantine advanced his new belief carefully and methodically since paganism still remained the most popular religion. (59)
Constantine remained friendly to pagans, often hosting debating get-togethers. He gave Greek pagan names such as Eirene (Peace) and Sophia (Wisdom) to the churches in Constantinople. (60) The office of Pontifex Maximus, a very pagan and imperial title, remained not only with him, but also with his successors up to the year 379. (61) However, he did not stay static as he slowly pushed the old religion aside in favorite of the new one. He gradually converted pagan symbols in coins to more neutral concepts. Around 331 he began to introduce measures against paganism, including the removal of treasures from pagan temples. (62)
Some temples were destroyed and sacrifices prohibited. Consultations with pagan oracles terminated. Pagan worship was not recorded in the new city of Constantinople. He strived to weaken pagan practices without disturbing its structure until it would crumble at its own pace. He eventually succeeded. (63)
On the other hand, the Christian church benefited immensely from Constantine's generosity and devotion. He decreed that those engaged in ecclesiastical duties received the same privileges accorded pagan priests. They, and the churches, were exempt from taxation. The Christian church also acquired the right of inheritance, meaning that anyone could entrust its possessions to the church. (64) He kept to himself the power to appoint bishops. They received special powers, such as judicial, and became advisers to the emperor. During the height of Constantine's reign there were 1800 bishops. (65)
Constantine, newly converted to Christianity, was unsympathetic to Jews and during his reign passed several anti-Semitic laws. Jews were severely punished when they tried to rebuild their temple in Jerusalem. However, not being a powerful group, they did not interfere with imperial unity and were not a major concern of the emperor. (66)
Two groups of people did concerned Constantine, the pagans in the northern frontier and the Christians living in Persia. When dealing with the pagans in the north, the Germanic and Sarmatian tribes, he specified that conversion to Christianity be a part of any treaty agreements. As for the Christians living in Persia, he expressed personal interest to the Persian king regarding their welfare. (67)

As much as Constantine tried to adhere to the principles of his new religion, his hands were to be stained with murderous blood. In 331 he 'executed' the pagan philosopher Sopater, key friend and advisor, when the praetorian prefect Ablabius turned the emperor against him, all on grounds of jealousy. Less than five years earlier he had executed his eldest son, Flavius Julius Crispus, on suspicions that he had committed a serious sexual crime. (68) Fausta, Constantine's wife and Crispus stepmother, with the intention of promoting her sons, brought about those suspicions. Constantine's guilt for the death of his son intensified and the target of that guilt fell on Fausta. Not long after Crispus execution, Fausta was killed in the baths of Trier. (69) Soon after these events, his mother Helena left for Palestine on a pilgrimage and while there she built several churches and supposedly discovered remnants of the True Cross. (70)
By 334 external pressures distracted Constantine's mind from domestic problems when the Persian king Shapur II invaded Armenia and toppled its king, breaking the peace agreements. Constantinus II killed one of Shapur's brothers as he attempted to take control of the crown. (71)
A year later Constantine divided the empire among his sons and nephews. The western provinces were given to Constantine II; Italy and North Africa to Constans; the east to Constantius II; Thrace, Macedonia, Achea and Constantinople to his step-nephew Delamtius; and the easternmost provinces to Delmatius brother Hannibalianus. Delmatius and Hannibalianus were the sons of Delmatius the Elder, Constantine's stepbrother and son of Constantius I Chlorus and Theodora. (72)

With the empire thus divided, Constantine concentrated on the coming war with the Persian Empire. In 336 he dismissed the delegates sent by Shapur. (73) He intended to place his step-nephew Hannibalianus king of Armenia. (74) A year later, just before he was ready for hostilities, he died. (75) That very year, knowing that the end was near, he was baptized in a village near Nicomedia by bishop Eusebius. Many Christian adults at that time waited until late in life or when confronted with waning health to be baptized, mostly out of fear of committing a sin and thus ruining their chances of entering heaven. (76)
Shortly after being baptized, Constantine moved to a villa near Nicomedia where he passed away on 22 May 337. He was laid in a golden coffin and the body covered in purple attire. Afterwards he was taken to Constantinople where he laid in state as his subjects paid homage. Several days later, his son Constantius II led the funeral procession through the streets of Constantinople to the Church of the Holy Apostles. At the church his body was interned in the mausoleum he had built. Part of his pagan past remained as he was later deified. (77)

Constantine inherited an empire whose foundations were re-designed and re-shaped by the capable hands of Diocletian. Constantine built on it; for instance, changing the structure of the military and revising the economy. His insatiable expenditure of funds set a dangerous precedent for future rulers and some historians believe that his policies, militarily and administrative, precipitated the collapse of the western empire. Positively speaking, his adoption of Christianity changed society forever and his decision to establish Constantinople as the new capital in the east brought about a new empire, today called Byzantium, and which would last over a thousand years.

Notes:

1. A. A. Vasiliev, History of the Byzantine Empire- Vol.1, p. 44
2. M. Grant, Constantine the Great, p. 16
3. Ibid, p. 17
4. W. Treadgold, A History of the Byzantine Society, 15-18
5. M. Grant, p. 19
6. Ibid, p. 19-20
7. Ibid, p. 82
8. Ibid, p. 105-107
9. Ibid, p. 134-135
10. Treadgold, p. 31
11. Grant, p. 140-142
12. Vasiliev, p. 50
13. G. Ostrogorsky, History of the Byzantine State, p. 34
14. Grant, p. 21
15. Ibid, p. 23
16. Ibid, p. 23-24
17. Treadgold, p. 29
18. Grant, p. 25-26
19. Ibid, p. 26-31
20. Treadgold, p. 31
21. Grant, p. 32
22. Ibid, p. 34
23. Ibid, p. 34-35
24. Ibid, p. 38
25. Ibid, p. 40
26. Treadgold, p. 34
27. Grant, p. 43
28. Treadgold, p. 34
29. Grant, p. 161
30. Ibid, p. 167
31. Treadgold, p. 35
32. Grant, p. 170
33. Ostrogorsky, p. 48
34. Ibid, p. 48. Grant, p. 173-175
35. Grant, p. 57
36. Ibid, p. 64
37. Ibid, p. 46-48
38. Ibid, p. 53
39. Ibid, p. 74
40. Ostrogorsky, p. 34
41. Grant, p. 82-83
42. W. Treadgold, Byzantium and Its Army, p. 10
43. Grant, p. 84-85
44. Ostrogorsky, p. 37-38
45. Ibid, p. 39
46. Grant, p. 85-86
47. Ibid, p. 87-90
48. Ibid, p. 91
49. Ibid, p. 94
50. Treadgold, p. 40
51. Grant, p. 95
52. Ostrogorsky, p. 40
53. Grant, p. 99
54. Ibid, p. 100-102
55. Ibid, p. 120
56. Vasiliev, p. 59
57. Grant, p. 191-193
58. Ibid, p. 148-151
59. Ibid, p. 152
60. Ibid, p. 178
61. Ostrogorsky, p. 47
62. Grant, p. 179
63. Ibid, p. 181
64. Vasiliev, p. 53
65. Grant, p. 159-160
66. Ibid, p. 182
67. Ibid, p. 183
68. Treadgold, p. 44
69. Grant, p. 109-110
70. Treadgold, p. 44
71. Grant, p. 76
72. Ibid, p. 218
73. Ibid, p. 78
74. Treadgold, p. 48
75. Grant, p. 78
76. Ibid, p. 211
77. Ibid, p. 213-215



Content provided by:
Roberto Naranjo

Selected sources:
Sources: Grant, Michael. Constantine the Great- The Man and His Times. Charles Scribner's Sons. New York. 1993 Ostrogorsky, George. History of the Byzantine State. Rutgers University Press. New Jersey. 1969 Treadgold, Warren. A History of the Byzantine Society. Stanford University Press. Stanford, CA. 1997 Treadgold, Warren. Byzantium and Its Army. Stanford University Press. Stanford, CA. 1995 Vasiliev, A. A. History of the Byzantine Empire- Vol. 1 University of Wisconsin Press. Madison, WI. 1964



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