This is the Enemy

Created and developed by Gretchen Jahn Bertram

This is the Enemy investigates the internment of Japanese-Americans in the United States following the attack on Pearl Harbor and America's entry into the second World War.

Sources: 

Image Sources

1.  http://content.cdlib.org...  Online Archive of California: Jarda; Japanese American Relocation Digital Archives.  “Many children of Japanese ancestry attended Raphael Weill public school, Geary and Buchanan Streets, prior to evacuation. This scene shows first-graders during flag pledge ceremony. Evacuees will be housed for the duration in War Relocation Authority centers. Provision will be effected for continuance of education.”  Dorothea Lange, photographer.  War Relocation Authority Photograph.  April 20, 1942.  Owning Institution: The Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley. 

2.  http://memory.loc.gov...  The Library of Congress: American Memory.  Naval dispatch from the Commander in Chief Pacific (CINCPAC) announcing the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, 7 December 1941.  (John J. Ballentine Papers). 

3.  http://www.archives.gov...  The National Archives and Records Administration.  USS Shaw (DD-373) exploding during the Japanese raid on Pearl Harbor.  Unknown navy photographer.  December 7, 1941.  General Records of the Department of the Navy, 1798-1947.  (80-G-16871) [VENDOR # 91]. 

4.  http://memory.loc.gov...  The Library of Congress: American Memory.  President Roosevelt signing the declaration of war against Japan.  December, 1941. Office of War Information photograph.  Farm Security Administration and Office of War Information Collection (The Library of Congress).  No.17109-ZD. Reproduction Number: LC-USZ62-15185 DLC (b&w film copy neg.)  Digital ID: cph 3a17434. 

5.  http://content.cdlib.org...  Online Archive of California: Jarda; Japanese American Relocation Digital Archives.  “In Los Angeles' "Little Tokyo," news of Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor left shocked silence yesterday. There was no demonstration, little comment. Pictured here are two youths selling the Examiner and the local Japanese paper. Approximately 20,000 Japanese live in city, mostly Nisei, or second generation, born in America."--caption on photograph.  December 7, 1941.  Owning Institution: University of Southern California, Library. Dept. of Special Collections, Regional History Center.  Identifier: JARDA-2-07.

6.  http://www.library.northwestern.edu...  Northwestern University Library: World War II Posters Collection.  Avenge December 7.  Bernard Perlin, Artist.  1942.  Publisher: Washington, D.C.: U.S. G.P.O.: Distributed by Division of Public Inquiries, Office of War Information.  "War Information Office"--Monthly catalog 1943, p. 95.  Object no. IIIE.11. Call Number: Pr32. 5015: 15. 

7.  http://www.loc.gov...  The Library of Congress; Online exhibit “Women Come to the Front: Journalists, Photographers, and Broadcasters During World War II”.  Prelude to the Japanese Exodus: Civilian Executive Order No. 5.  Dorothea Lange, Photographer.  April 1942.   

8.  http://content.cdlib.org...  Online Archive of California.  Husbands of these two women are being held as dangerous enemy aliens. Wives and children were evacuated with other persons of Japanese ancestry, and will spend the duration at War Relocation Authority centers.  Dorothea Lange, Photographer.  San Francisco, California, April 25, 1942.  Owning Institution: The Bancroft Library. University of California, Berkeley.

9.  http://www.library.northwestern.edu... Northwestern University Library: World War II Posters Collection.  Remember December 7th!  Allen Saalburg, Artist.  1943.  Publisher: Washington, D.C.: U.S. G.P.O.: Distributed by Division of Public Inquiries, Office of War Information.  "War Information Office"--Monthly catalog 1943, p. 95.  Object no. IIIE.5. Call Number: Pr32. 5015: 14/3.   

10.  http://www.archives.gov...  The National Archives.  Merchandise Sale in San Francisco, California. Customers buy merchandise in a store operated by a proprietor of Japanese ancestry during a pre-evacuation sale. Evacuees of Japanese ancestry will be housed in War Relocation Authority centers for the duration of the war.  ARC Identifier: 536042. 

11.  http://content.cdlib.org...  Online Archive of California: Jarda; Japanese American Relocation Digital Archives. Following evacuation orders, this store, at 13th and Franklin Streets, was closed. The owner, a University of California graduate of Japanese descent, placed the I AM AN AMERICAN sign on the store front on December 8, the day after Pearl Harbor. Evacuees of Japanese ancestry will be housed in War Relocation Authority centers for the duration. Dorothea Lange, Photographer.  Oakland, California, March 13, 1942.  Owning Institution: The Bancroft Library. University of California, Berkeley.

12.  http://www.archives.gov...  The National Archives.  Thank You Note in "Little Tokyo" in Los Angeles, California. Mr. and Mrs. K. Tseri have closed their drugstore in preparation for the forthcoming evacuation from their home and business.  ARC Identifier: 536001. 

13.  http://content.cdlib.org...  Online Archive of California.Headlines of newspapers, in stand at 14th and Broadway, presaged on February 27, 1942, the evacuation of persons of Japanese ancestry from military areas. On February 19, President Roosevelt delegated to the Secretary of War power to exclude any person, alien, or citizen, from any area which might be required, on the grounds of military necessity. Evacuees of Japanese descent will be housed in War Relocation Authority centers for the duration.  Dorothea Lange, Photographer.  Oakland, California, February 27, 1942.  Owning Institution: The Bancroft Library. University of California, Berkeley. 

14.  http://americanhistory.si.edu...  The Smithsonian National Museum of American History: Behring Center.  Online gallery: A More Perfect Union; Japanese Americans and the U.S. Constitution.  Warning! Our Homes Are In Danger Now!  Our Job -- Keep 'Em Firing!  1942.  General Motors Corporation. 

15.  http://www.loc.gov...  The Library of Congress: Prints and Photographs Division.  Interrupted Lives: Residents of Japanese ancestry awaiting the bus.  Dorothea Lange, Photographer. April 1942. 

16.  http://content.cdlib.org...  Online Archive of California.  Los Angeles, Calif.-- Evacuees of Japanese ancestry entraining for Manzanar, Calif., 250 miles away, where they now are housed in a War Relocation Authority center. Clem Albers, Photographer.  Los Angeles, California, April 1, 1942.  Owning Institution: The Bancroft Library. University of California, Berkeley.

17.  http://narademo.umiacs.umd.edu...  University of Maryland Institute for Advanced Computer Studies.  The Little Jap is a Big Job.  Office for Emergency Management. Office of War Information. Domestic Operations Branch. Bureau of Special Services.

18.  http://lcweb2.loc.gov...  The Library of Congress.  American Memory: America from the Great Depression to World War II: Black-and-White Photographs from the FSA-OWI, 1935-1945.  The evacuation of Japanese-Americans from West Coast areas under U.S. Army war emergency order. Japanese-American child who is being evacuated with his parents to Owens Valley.  Russell Lee, Photographer.  Los Angeles, California, April, 1942.  Farm Security Administration - Office of War Information Photograph Collection (The Library of Congress) Call Number: LC-USF33- 013296-M5.  Reproduction Number: LC-USF33-013296-M5 DLC (b&w film nitrate neg.), LC-USZ62-129127 DLC (b&w film copy neg. from file print).

19.  http://lcweb2.loc.gov...  The Library of Congress.  American Memory: American Memory: America from the Great Depression to World War II: Black-and-White Photographs from the FSA-OWI, 1935-1945.  Untitled Image.  Created between 1935 and 1942.  Farm Security Administration - Office of War Information Photograph Collection (The Library of Congress)  Call Number: LC-USF33- 013286-M4.  Reproduction Number: LC-USF33-013286-M4 DLC (b&w film nitrate neg.)

20.  http://www.archives.gov...  The National Archives: Powers of Persuasion; Poster Art from World War II.  Keep These Hands Off.  G.K. Odell, artist.  NARA Still Picture Branch (NWDNS-44-PA-97).

21.  http://lcweb2.loc.gov...  The Library of Congress: Prints and Photographs Online Catalogue.  Bainbridge Island (Wash.) evacuation - [Japanese-American] mother and sleeping baby ready to leave their island home.  March 30, 1942.  Photograph by Seattle Post-Intelligencer.  Call Number: LOT 10617, v. 3, p. 246 [item] [P&P].  Reproduction Number: LC-USZ62-88338 (b&w film copy neg.)

22. http://narademo.umiacs.umd.edu...  University of Maryland Institute for Advanced Computer Studies.  "Jap...You're Next! We'll Finish the Job!”  James Montgomery Flagg, artist.  U.S. Army Official Poster. 

23.  http://content.cdlib.org...  Online Archive of California: Jarda; Japanese American Relocation Digital Archives. Hayward, Calif.--Two children of the Mochida family who, with their parents, are awaiting evacuation bus. The youngster on the right holds a sandwich given her by one of a group of women who were present from a local church. The family unit is kept intact during evacuation and at War Relocation Authority centers where evacuees of Japanese ancestry will be housed for the duration. Dorothea Lange, Photographer.  Hayward, California, May 8, 1942.  Owning Institution: The Bancroft Library. University of California, Berkeley. 

24.  http://bss.sfsu.edu...  Japanese American Internment Curriculum: Posters from World War II.  This is the Enemy.  Anonymous Artist.  1942.  Design entry, Poster Contest.

25.  http://content.cdlib.org...  Online Archive of California: Jarda; Japanese American Relocation Digital Archives.  Turlock, Calif.--These young evacuees of Japanese ancestry are waiting their turn for baggage inspection upon arrival at this Assembly Center.  Dorothea Lange, Photographer.  Turlock, California, May 2, 1942.  Owning Institution: The Bancroft Library. University of California, Berkeley. 

26.  http://content.cdlib.org...  Online Archive of California: Jarda; Japanese American Relocation Digital Archives. Hayward, Calif.--These people of Japanese ancestry are awaiting the special bus which will take them, and other evacuees, to the Tanforan Assembly Center. The father of this small family is attending to their luggage and bed rolls. They will spend the duration at a War Relocation Authority.  Dorothea Lange, Photographer.  Turlock, California, May 2, 1942.  Owning Institution: The Bancroft Library. University of California, Berkeley.    

27.  http://bss.sfsu.edu...  Japanese American Internment Curriculum: Posters from World War II.  Attack on a Caucasian Woman.  Anonymous Caricature. 

28.  http://content.cdlib.org...  Online Archive of California: Jarda; Japanese American Relocation Digital Archives. Hayward, Calif.--A young member of an evacuee family awaiting evacuation bus. Evacuees of Japanese ancestry will be housed in War Relocation Authority centers for the duration. Dorothea Lange, Photographer.  Hayward, California, May 8, 1942.  Owning Institution: The Bancroft Library. University of California, Berkeley.    

29.  http://www.library.northwestern.edu...  Northwestern University Library: World War II Posters Collection.  No Loyal Citizen of the United States.  1943.  Publisher: Washington, D.C.: U.S. G.P.O.: Distributed by the Division of Public Inquiries, Office of War Information.  Object no. VII.6.

30.  http://bss.sfsu.edu...  Japanese American Internment Curriculum: Posters from World War II.  Japanese Type.  "How to tell Japs from the Chinese."  December, 1941.  Life Magazine. 

31.   http://content.cdlib.org...  Online Archive of California.  [postcard] [Our concentration camp in Topaz, Utah. The barbed wire fence and guard towers are not visible.] [On verso:] Dec 16, 1944. Mr. and Mrs. Uchida. Our lifes memory. Topaz city Utah. Looking down frm 1/2 million gl water tank (Daily usege of amount 150,000 gls.) Hight 130 ft. R. Kasai.  Owning Institution: Bancroft Library. 

32.  http://content.cdlib.org...  Online Archive of California.  Manzanar, Calif.--Grandfather and grandson of Japanese ancestry at this War Relocation Authority center. Dorothea Lange, Photographer.  Manzanar, California, July 2, 1942.  Owning Institution: The Bancroft Library. University of California, Berkeley.    

33.  http://content.cdlib.org...  Online Archive of California: Jarda; Japanese American Relocation Digital Archives.  One of the young Heart Mountain school children is enjoying a swing on the center's play ground. Iwasaki Hikaru, Photographer.  Heart Mountain, Wyoming, November 24, 1943.  Owning Institution: The Bancroft Library. University of California, Berkeley.    

34.  http://narademo.umiacs.umd.edu...  University of Maryland Institute for Advanced Computer Studies.  Keep talking I'm all ears.  Office for Emergency Management, Office of War Information, Domestic Operations Branch, Bureau of Special Services.

35.  http://www.loc.gov...  The Library of Congress: Women Come to the Front: Journalists, Photographers, Broadcasters during world war II.  This is America: Keep it Free.  Propaganda Poster Based on Dorothea Lange Photograph.  Chicago: Sheldon-Claire, 1942.

36.  http://content.cdlib.org...  California Digital Library.  Manzanar, Calif.--Evacuee boy waiting at the entrance of the Recreational Hall at this War Relocation Authority center. He is anxious for the baseball team to assemble. Dorothea Lange, Photographer.  Manzanar, California, July 1, 1942.  Owning Institution:  The Bancroft Library. University of California, Berkeley.

37.  http://americanhistory.si.edu...  Smithsonian National Museum of American History: A More Perfect Union: Japanese Americans and the US Constitution.  Boundary sign, "Stop - Area Limits." Charles E. Mace, Photographer.  Tule Lake Center, Newell, California, September 28, 1943.  Courtesy of National Archives. 

38.  http://americanhistory.si.edu...  Smithsonian National Museum of American History: A More Perfect Union: Japanese Americans and the US Constitution.  Boy behind barbed wire fence, Tule Lake.  "Mr. George Oni and his daughter Georgette Chize Oni biding farewell to brother Henry Oni."  Jack Iwata, photographer.  Tule Lake Center, Newell, California, February 7, 1946.  Courtesy of National Archives. 

39.  http://timmer.org...  Online Readings: History 20; Primary Documents and Essays.  Untitled.  Archie Miyatake, photographer.  Manzanar Relocation Camp, California, circa 1942-1945.

40.  http://bss.sfsu.edu...  Japanese American Internment Curriculum: Posters from World War II.  Keep This Horror From Your Home.

41.  http://content.cdlib.org...  Online Archive of California: Jarda; Japanese American Relocation Digital Archives.  Young children at Jerome Relocation Center.  Gretchen Denson Van Tassel, photographer.   Arkansas, January 18, 1944.  Owning Institution:  The Bancroft Library. University of California, Berkeley.

42.  http://snuffy.lib.umn.edu...  University of Minnesota; University Libraries: “A Summons to Comradeship” World War I and II Posters and Postcards.  Material Conservation.  Jack Campbell, creator.  Record Number: msp04425.

43.  http://americanhistory.si.edu...  Smithsonian National Museum of American History: A More Perfect Union: Japanese Americans and the US Constitution.  Guards atop guard tower.  "Arcadia, California. Military police on duty in watch-tower at Santa Anita Park assembly center for evacuees of Japanese ancestry. Evacuees are transferred later to War Relocation Authority centers for the duration."  Clem Albers, photographer.  April 6, 1942.  Courtesy of National Archives.

44.  http://www.archives.gov...l  The National Archives: Powers of Persuasion; Poster Art from World War II.  Ours...to fight for--Freedom From Fear.  Norman Rockwell, artist.  ©1943 SEPS: The Curtis Publishing Co.  Printed by the Government Printing Office
for the Office of War Information.  NARA Still Picture Branch.  (NWDNS-208-PMP-46). 

45.  http://americanhistory.si.edu...  Smithsonian National Museum of American History: A More Perfect Union: Japanese Americans and the US Constitution.  Jap Hunting License.  David P. Bailey, creator.  January 9, 1942. 

46.  http://content.cdlib.org...c  Online Archive of California.  "They're Japanese -- but loyal Americans. In 1917, Kaytaro Tsukamoto served with the United States Army. Now a San Francisco businessman, he is commander of the Japanese American Legion Post. Here he shows his 11-year-old son Wilmer pictures of himself when he was an American doughboy of '17. Tsukamoto was born in this country."--caption on photograph.  February 20, 1942.  Owning Institution: University of Southern California. Library. Dept. of Special Collections. Regional History Center.  Identifier: JARDA-1-35.

47.  http://narademo.umiacs.umd.edu...8  University of Maryland Institute for Advanced Computer Studies.  Stop Him and the Job’s Done.  1945.  Harry Horst Meyers, Artist.
Office for Emergency Management. Office of War Information. Domestic Operations Branch. Bureau of Special Services. 

48.  http://faculty.rmwc.edu...  Japanese-American Internment Camp.  A white man pointing the sign at the store saying "We don't want Japs”.

49.  http://orpheus.ucsd.edu...  UC San Diego, Mandeville Special Collections Library: Dr. Seuss Went to War: A Catalog of Political Cartoons by Dr. Seuss.  Waiting for the Signal from Home.  Theodor Seuss Geisel, artist.  February 13, 1942.  PM. 

50.  http://americanhistory.si.edu...  Smithsonian National Museum of American History: A More Perfect Union: Japanese Americans and the US Constitution.  Young boy and guard with rifle, Seattle.  "Two-and-one-half-year-old Masura Shibayana is too young to know that his ancestral country is at war with his adopted country, so he shows only polite interest in the US Army sentry with his rifle and fixed bayonet at the left. The youngster and his Japanese parents are among those facing evacuation from the Seattle war area."  AP/Wide World Photo, Seattle Bureau.  March 28, 1942. 

51.  http://www.authentichistory.com...  The Authentic History Center: Primary Sources from American Popular Culture. Strike ‘em Dead Remember Pearl Harbor Matchbook. 

52.  http://content.cdlib.org...a  Online Archive of California: Jarda; Japanese American Relocation Digital Archives. "Jap Repatriates -- This is the Hiyarama family and friends, on of the groups of Japanese repatriates who boarded the liner Matsonia in Seattle for removal to Japan. Most came from Texas internment camp."--caption on photograph.  December 8, 1945.  Owning Institution: University of Southern California. Library. Dept. of Special Collections. Regional History Center. Identifier: JARDA-8-15. 

53.  http://content.cdlib.org...  Online Archive of California: Jarda; Japanese American Relocation Digital Archives.  "Jap Civilians Leave Shanghai in Crowded Ship -- Jap repatriates, who had led a life of comparative ease in China during the war, find themselves a bit crowded together in the holds of the S.S. Meiyu Maru, which is carrying them back to Nippon."--caption on photograph. December 12, 1945.   Owning Institution: University of Southern California. Library. Dept. of Special Collections. Regional History Center.  Identifier: JARDA-8-11. 

54.  http://narademo.umiacs.umd.edu...  University of Maryland Institute for Advanced Computer Studies.  Stop This Monster That Stops at Nothing.  Produce to the Limit.  This is Your War.  Office for Emergency Management. Office of War Information. Domestic Operations Branch. Bureau of Special Services.  

55.  http://content.cdlib.org...  Online Archive of California: Jarda; Japanese American Relocation Digital Archives.  "A Man in Four Million -- This pouting little man is one of more than four million Japanese repatriates who have been transported to the Japanese homeland from Far Eastern ports and Pacific Islands in a gigantic passenger-carrying operation by the U.S. Navy. A million more such passengers will be repatriated before the end of the year, when the program will be completed. The Navy used Liberty Ships, former naval vessels of Japan and U.S. Navy amphibious craft in carrying out the big job. All costs of the repatriation operation are borne by the Japanese government."--caption on photograph.  August 24, 1946.  Owning Institution: University of Southern California. Library. Dept. of Special Collections. Regional History Center. Identifier: JARDA-8-06. 

Audio Sources

Wada, Kaoru.  InuYasha The Movie 3: Swords of an Honorable Ruler.  Original Soundtrack. © Rumiko Takashashi/Shogakukan, YTV, Sunrise, ShoPro, NTV, Toho, Yomiuri-TV Enterprises, 2003.   

http://www.archives.gov...  The National Archives: Teaching With Documents: “A Date Which Will Live in Infamy”.  FranklinDelano Roosevelt, “Day of Infamy” Speech; Pearl Harbor Address to the Congress.  12:30 p.m., December 8, 1941.

 http://www.fdrlibrary.marist.edu...  Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum.  Franklin Delano Roosevelt, “The Four Freedoms". Annual Address to Congress.  January 6, 1941.  

 

Credits: 

Created and Developed by Gretchen Jahn Bertram

This item was created by a contributor to eHistory prior to its affiliation with The Ohio State University. As such, it has not been reviewed for accuracy by the University and does not necessarily adhere to the University's scholarly standards.