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FEATURES: CIVIL WAR UNITS: Kershaw's Brigade, CSA [BACK]

The 3rd South Carolina Volunteer Infantry Regiment

By: Mac Wyckoff
E-mail: mwyckoff@erols.com

The 3rd South Carolina suffered under poor leadership at the regiment and company level during the first year of the war. However, at the reorganization on May 13, 1862 the men elected James Drayton Nance as their colonel. They also elected younger and more aggressive men as their other officers at both regiment and company level. Nance, a graduate of The South Carolina Military School (now called The Citadel), brought discipline and improved the efficiency and morale of the men. Under Nance's leadership, the regiment developed into one of the real elite units of Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia. They paid a high price in casualties. A shocking 45 percent of the men did not survive the war with another 697 surviving one or more wounds. Few, in any, regiments of either side suffered more losses.

The unit was among the ten regiments organized under the direction of Governor Pickens in early 1861 as a result of act passed by the South Carolina General Assembly on December 17, 1860. The regiment was activated on April 13, 1861 and ordered to rendezvous in Columbia as quickly as possible. By April 17th, all twelve companies had arrived in Columbia. The regiment was mustered into Confederate service while at Columbia on June 6, 1861. Since Confederate regulations allowed for only ten companies, two companies joined other regiments. The regiment departed for Virginia on June 15, 1861.

The men elected James Henderson Williams as their colonel even though he was in Arkansas, He was highly respected and had military experience in both the Seminole and Mexican wars, but did not join the regiment until May 1st. A lack of testimony by the soldiers either for or against Williams makes it hard to evaluate his performance. However, a letter of April 17, 1862 from Adjutant William D. Rutherford to his brother-in-law Captain James D. Nance indicates that the regiment had serious morale problems and lacked leadership at the company. The elevation of Nance to colonel and the new leadership at the company level led to drastic improvements. Heavy losses in the regimental and company command structure during the middle and later part of the war finally caught with the unit. The death of Nance at the Wilderness on May 6, 1864 led to a rapid decline in the efficiency level.

The regiment underwent a consolidation with the 3rd South Carolina Battalion and 8th South Carolina on April 9, 1865, the day that General Lee surrendered his army at Appomattox. The regiment surrendered with general Joseph Johnston at the Bennett House near Durham, North Carolina on April 26, 1865 and the survivors were given paroles on May 2, 1865 at Greensboro, North Carolina.

ENGAGEMENTS:

Mitchell's Ford, VA, July 18, 1861

1st Manassas, VA, July 21, 1861

Held Yorktown Line, VA, Mid-April- May 3, 1862

Williamsburg, VA, May 4-5, 1862

Skirmish near Fair Oaks, VA, June 18, 1862

Savage Station, VA, June 29, 1862

Malvern Hill, VA, July 1, 1862

Maryland Heights, MD, September 12-13, 1862

Antietam, MD, September 17, 1862

Fredericksburg, VA, December 11-15, 1862

Chancellorsville, VA, May 1-5, 1863

Gettysburg, PA, July 2-3, 1863

Chickamauga, GA, September 20, 1863

Campbell Station, TN, November 16, 1863

Knoxville, TN, November 17-18, 1863

Fort Sanders, TN, November 29, 1863

Bean Station, TN, December 14, 1863

Wilderness, VA, May 6-7, 1864

Spotsylvania, VA, May 8-21, 1864

North Anna, VA, May 23-25, 1864

Cold Harbor, June 1-12, 1864

Petersburg, VA, June 18, 1864

Deep Bottom, VA, July 27-28, 1864

Charlestown, WV, August 26, 1864

Berryville, VA, September 13, 1864

Hupp's Hill, VA, October 13, 1864

Cedar Creek, VA, October 19, 1864

Held Salkehatchie Line, January-February, 1865

Averasboro, NC, March 16, 1865

Bentonville, NC, March 19-21, 1865

ENROLLMENT AND CASUALTIES

Documents in the 19th century were poorly kept and many have not survived. What remains are partial, often conflicting or ambiguous, and sometimes incorrect records.

Enrollment-1343, plus some who served in the regiment after the consolidation of the regiments of Kershaw's Brigade on April 9, 1865 and some bogus names in the Compiled Service Records at The National Archives.

Killed or Mortally Wounded in Action- 298

Died of Disease or Accident-298

Wounded (many more than once)-697

ORGANIZATION

Colonels

James Henderson Williams-Elected April 13, 1861, Resigned at reorganization May 13, 1862.

James Drayton Nance -Elected at reorganization May 13, 1862. Killed at Wilderness May 6, 1864.

William Drayton Rutherford -Promoted May 6, 1864. Killed at Hupp's Hill October 13, 1864. No one promoted to colonel. Rutherford Todd was promoted to lieutenant colonel and commanded regiment from October 13, 1864 through April 9, 1865.

Eli Thomas Stackhouse- He commanded the 8th South Carolina. At the consolidation of the 3rd, 8th, and 3rd South Carolina Battalion on April 9, 1865, he took command of 3rd South Carolina. Paroled at Greensboro May 2, 1865.

Lieutenant Colonels

Barham Bobo Foster-Elected April 13, 1861. Resigned March 1, 1862, health having "completely given away."

Benjamin Conway Garlington -Elected at reorganization May 13, 1862. No record of who held this office between March 1 and May 13, 1862. Killed at Savage Station June 29, 1862.

William Drayton Rutherford-Promoted July 1, 1862. Promoted to colonel May 6, 1864. Robert Clayton Maffett-Promoted May 6, 1864. Captured at Halltown August 26, 1864. Died at Ft. Delaware Prison April 26, 1865, the day that General Johnston surrendered. Rutherford Pressley Todd- Promoted October 13, 1864. Paroled at Greensboro May 2, 1865. Apparently no one filled this position except on at acting basis until Todd was promoted on October 13th.

Majors

James M. Baxter-Elected April 13, 1861. Promoted lieutenant colonel March 1, 1862. Benjamin Conway Garlington-Promoted March 1, 1862. Elected lieutenant colonel at reorganization May 13, 1862.

William Drayton Rutherford-Elected at reorganization May 13, 1862. Promoted to lieutenant colonel July 1, 1862.

Robert Clayton Maffett -Promoted July 1, 1862. Promoted to lieutenant colonel May 6, 1864. Rutherford Pressley Todd-Promoted May 6, 1864. Promoted to lieutenant colonel October 13, 1864. Jonathan King Griffin Nance-Promoted October 13, 1864. Paroled Greensboro May 2, 1865.

Adjutants

William Drayton Rutherford-Elected April 13, 1861. Elected major at reorganization on May 13, 1862.

Young John Pope -Promoted May 16, 1862.

Quartermasters-

John J. McGowan. Elected April 13, 1861. Resigned at reorganization May 13, 1862. George Washington Shell-Appointed May 27, 1862. Promoted division quartermaster in 1863, exact date unstated.

No record of who replaced Shell.

Commissaries

Hunt, J. Hamilton-Elected April 13, 1861. Resigned at reorganization May 13, 1862.

Rufus N. Lowrance-Promoted June 1, 1862. No record of when he departed.

Henry Drayton Shell-Detailed June 22, 1863. Promoted assistant surgeon between March 19 and May 21, 1864.

No record of who replaced Shell.

Surgeons

David Edwards (Edmunds) Ewart-Elected April 13, 1862. Tendered his resignation July 1, 1862. Failling health. Resigned March 18, 1863.

George G. Farnandis-Appointed January 13, 1863. Apparently departed by April 1, 1863.

James Evans-Promoted April 1, 1863. Paroled Greensboro on May 2, 1865.

Assistant Surgeons

Jonathan Francis Dorroh-Elected April 13, 1861. Resigned August 1, 1862.

James Evans-Acting since August 1, 1862, but not commissioned until October 1, 1862. Promoted Surgeon April 1, 1863.

G.W. Hunter-Appointed July 15, 1862. Sick or on furlough most of the time. Listed as AWOL December 13, 1862. No further record on him.

Thomas Chapman Brown-Promoted January 27, 1864. Paroled Greensboro May 2, 1865.

Henry Drayton Shell-promoted between March 19 and May 21, 1864.

The above information on assistant surgeons is a good example of confusing Civil War records.

Chaplain

W. D. Mayfield-Elected April 13, 1861. Resigned May 15, 1862.

No record of who replaced him.

COMPANIES

Company A

State Guards This company was enrolled on April 14, 1861 at Laurens and mustered into Confederate service on June 6, 1861. There is no record of what happened to this company at the consolidation on April 9, 1865 except that Company B and C had combined to form a new Company A commanded by Captain Thomas West Gary. The men came from the Laurens District.

Captains

Benjamin Conway Garlington-Elected April 13, 1861 Promoted major March 1, 1862.

William Wood Hance-Elected at the reorganization May 13, 1862. Mortally wounded at Fredericksburg December 13, 1862. Died January 6, 1863.

Robert E. Richardson-Promoted January 1, 1863. He was severely wounded at Chickamauga on September 20, 1863 and hospitalized. He was listed as AWOL on February 29, 1864, but present on June 30, 1864.

Thomas West Gary-He was captain of Company B who took over command of Company A at the consolidation on April 9, 1865. Paroled at Greensboro May 2, 1865.

Company B, Williams Guards

This company was enrolled for service at Newberry on April 13, 1861 and mustered into Confederate service on June 6, 1861. Consolidated with Company C to form Company A on April 9, 1865. The men came from the Newberry District.

Captains

Samuel Newton Davidson-Elected April 14, 1861. Died of typhoid fever on June 13, 1862. Thomas West Gary-Promoted June 13, 1862. He took over command of new Company A, the combined old Company B and Company C at the consolidation on April 9, 1865. He was paroled at Greenboro on May 2, 1865.

Company C, Pickens Guards

This company was enrolled at Fog Level, now Prosperity, on April 14, 1861 and mustered into Confederate service on June 6, 1861. Consolidated with Company B to form Company A on April 9, 1865. At the same time, the men of old Company E became new Company C. The men came from the Newberry and what is now Prosperity areas.

Captains

Robert Clayton Maffett-Elected April 14, 1861.Promoted to major July 1, 1862.

Chesley W. Herbert -Promoted July 1, 1862. He was slightly wounded in the left knee at Gettysburg on Jul 2, 1863 and in the same knee seriously at Wilderness 6, 1864 disabled him for life. He wasn't discharged until February 24, 1865 but it appears that he never returned to company command after May 6, 1864.

John Caldwell Wilson-June 30, 1864 role shows him in command of the company.

Company D, Cross Anchors

This company was enrolled at Cross Anchor on April 14, 1861 and mustered into Confederate service on June 6, 1861. Was assigned as a new Company K at the consolidation on April 9, 1865. On the same day, the previous Company K combined with Company G became the new Company D. The men came from the Union and Spartanburg Districts.

Captains

Thomas Barker Ferguson-Elected April 14, 1861. Resigned at the reorganization on May 13, 1862.

F.N. Walker-Elected at reorganization on May 13, 1862. Severely wounded in arm during skirmish near Fair Oaks on June 18, 1862 and disabled. It does not appear that he returned to command the company. The records do not show anyone replacing him.

John W. Watts-Commanded the new Company D that was formed at the consolidation on April 9, 1865.

Company E, Quitman Rifles

This company was enrolled at Newberry on April 14, 1861 and mustered into Confederate service on June 6, 1861. The company became the new Company C at the consolidation on April 9, 1865. Captain Burnside of the 3rd South Carolina Battalion in command of the new Company E. The men came from the Newberry District.

Captains

James Drayton Nance-Elected April 14, 1861. Elected colonel at the reorganization on May 13, 1862.

John King Griffin Nance-Elected at the reorganization on May 13, 1862. Promoted major October 13, 1864.

No record of who commanded the company until the consolidation on April 9, 1865.

Allen W. Burnside-He was promoted to captain of a company in the 3rd South Carolina Battalion on July 28, 1864 and took command of Company E at the consolidation on April 9, 1865. He originally served in the Company G of the 3rd South Carolina before transferring to the 3rd South Carolina Battalion. Interestingly, he was the cousin of Union General Ambrose Burnside.

Company F, Unknown name

This company was enrolled at Boyd's Old Field in the Laurens District on April 14, 1861 and mustered into Confederate service on June 6, 1861. At the consolidation on April 9, 1865, the remnants of this command were placed into other companies and a new company was formed from men in the 3rd South Carolina Battalion. The men came from the Newberry and Laurens Districts.

Captains

Tandy Walker-Elected April 14, 1861. Resigned September 11, 1861.

Homes Leonidas McGowan-Promoted September 4, 1861. He was severely wounded at Savage Station on June 29, 1862 and it appears he did not return to command. He resigned prior to December 31, 1862.

Washington Albert "Puts" Williams-Promoted December 11, 1862. Killed at Chickamauga on September 20, 1863.

John B. O'Neal-Promoted October 7, 1863 to rank from September 20, 1863 even though he had a leg amputated at Gettysburg where he was captured and died on July 15, 1863!!

No record of who commanded the company after Captain Williams' death on September 20, 1863. Wesley W. Pitts-Became captain of the new Company F at the consolidation on April 9, 1865.

Company G, Laurens Briars

This company was enrolled at Laurens on April 14, 1861 and was mustered into Confederate service on June 6, 1861. Combined with Company K to form a new Company D during the consolidation on April 9, 1865. Captain B.A. Rogers of Company K of the 8th South Carolina took command of the new Company G. The men came from the Laurens area.

Captains

Rutherford Pressley Todd -Elected on April 14, 1861. Promoted May 6, 1864.

John W. Watts-Promoted May 6, 1864. Took command of the new Company D that was formed during the Consolidation on April 9, 1865.

B.A. Rogers-A Captain in the 8th South Carolina took command at the consolidation on April 9, 1865.

Company H, Unknown name

This company was enrolled at Dutch Fork on April 14, 1861 and mustered into Confederate service on June 6, 1861. There is no record of what happened to this company during the consolidation on April 9, 1865 except it was commanded by 1st Lieutenant David Copeland of Company I. The men came from the Dutch Fork area of Newberry District and the Lexington District.

Captains

Drury Nunamaker-Elected April 14, 1861. Resigned at the reorganization on May 13, 1862.

John Calhoun Summer- Elected captain during reorganization on May 13, 1862. Killed at Fredericksburg on December 13, 1862.

George S. Swiggert-Promoted December 13, 1862, but he was seriously wounded on that day. He returned by August 31, 1863 only to be severely wounded at Chickamauga on September 20, 1863. He did not return and resigned on March 1, 1864.

David Augustus Dickert -Promoted to rank from March 16, 1864. Dickert led about 20 men in deserting and going home between April 15 and 20, 1865.

1st Lieutenant David Copeland commanded the company at the surrender on April 26, 1865.

Company I, Musgrove Volunteers

This company was enrolled at Clinton on April 14, 1861 and mustered into Confederate service on June 6, 1861. There is no record of what happened to this company during the consolidation on April 9, 1865, except that Lieutenant Thompson Connor of Company B was promoted to command it. The men came from the Clinton area and Laurens District.

Captains

B.S. Jones-Elected April 13, 1861. Resigned at the reorganization on May 13, 1862.

David Mason Henry "Mase"-Elected at reorganization May 13, 1862. Seriously wounded in the neck, thigh, and lower leg at Savage Station on June 29, 1862 and lingered near death. Finally returned as acting lieutenant colonel on January 6, 1863. Killed at Gettysburg on July 2, 1863.

Thomas Henry Pitts-Promoted October 7, 1863 to rank from July 2, 1863, but was absent since receiving a severe leg wound at Fredericksburg on December 13, 1863. He returned on the morning on September 20, 1863 only to be wounded again in the leg within hours during the Battle of Chickamauga. His leg was amputated and he did not return before resigning on March 16, 1864.

Jared S. Johnson-Promoted April 5, 1864 although he also had been wounded and permanently disabled at Chickamauga.

Thompson Connor-He was a lieutenant in Company B who was promoted to captain of this company at the consolidation on April 9, 1865.

Company K, Blackstock

This company was enrolled on April 14, 1861 at Spartanburg and was mustered into Confederate service on June 6, 1861. In is unknown what happened this company at the consolidation on April 9,l 1865 except that it was commanded by Lieutenant A. H. Fleming of the 3rd South Carolina Battalion. The men came from the Spartanburg area.

Captains

Benjamin Kennedy-Elected April 14, 1861. Resigned at reorganization on May 13, 1862.

Seaborn M. Lanford-Elected at reorganization on May 13, 1862. Mortally wounded at Savage Station on June 29, 1862. Died the next day.

No record of who commanded company between Lanford death on June 30, 1862 and Young's return from being wounded at Fredericksburg.

William H. Young-Promoted December 14, 1862 despite being wounded the previous day at Fredericksburg. Killed at Gettysburg July 2, 1863.

James Henry Cunningham-Commanded company as 1st Lieutenant after July 2, 1863 until being seriously wounded at Chickamauga on September 20, 1863 that resulted in his leg being amputated. Promoted on October 7, 1863, but died from his wound on October 31, 1863.

John P. Roebuck-Probably commanded company after Cunningham's wound on September 20, 1863. He was wounded at Knoxville on November 18, 1863 and left behind when the city was evacuated on December 4, 1863. Promoted between December 31, 1863 and February 29, 1864 although he was probably in prison for the rest of the war.

James R. Moore-He apparently commanded company and may have been promoted to captain late in the war. He was wounded seriously in both legs at Wilderness on May 6, 1864.

A.H. Fleming-An officer in the 3rd South Carolina Battalion, he took command of company at consolidation on April 9, 1865.

What happened to this company's command system is a microcosm of what happened to the regiment's command system during the war.


SOURCES

Primary

Dickert, David Augustus. A History of Kershaw's Brigade. Wilmington, NC: Broadfoot Publishing Co., 1990 reprint. This edition includes an introduction by today's leading authority on Kershaw's Brigade, a article on the author (a member Kershaw's Brigade), maps, errata, and index that other editions do not contain.

Simpson, Dick and Tally. Far, Far From Home: The Wartime Letters of Dick and Tally Simpson, 3rd South Carolina Volunteers. Guy Everson and Edward H. Simpson, Jr., editor. New York, NT: Oxford University Press, 1994.

The best source of manuscript material on the 3rd South Carolina exists in The South Caroliniana Library at the University of South Carolina. See especially the letters of James Drayton Nance. Other manuscript material exits in university libraries, local and county archives, in possession of descendants of the veterans, and the libraries of the Civil War battlefield parks -especially Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania The war-time newspapers contain letters written by the soldiers, rosters, casualty lists, obituaries, etc. The University of South Carolina has these papers on microfilm. See especially the Charleston and Columbia newspapers. Southern Historical Society Papers and Confederate Veteran contains obituaries and articles -see especially those by John Coxe in the latter publication. Recollections and Reminiscences 1861 - 1865 Through World War I contain much useful information. The Compiled Service Records are on microfilm at The National Archives in Washington and the State Archives and History in Columbia. The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies contain the surviving reports made at the regimental and higher command levels.

Secondary

Prushankin, Jeffery S. Lieutenant Colonel Benjamin Conway Garlington Company "A" 3rd South Carolina Infantry C.S.A. Research paper of Villanova University student in 1995. Salley, Alexander S. (Compiler). South Carolina Troops in the Confederate Service. Vol. II. Columbia, SC: The State Co., 1914. Wyckoff, Mac. A History of the 3nd South Carolina: 1861-1865. Fredericksburg, VA: Sergeant's Kirkland's Museum and Historical Society Inc., 1995. This book is currently out of print. A second edition in paperback with an addendum to the roster and additional photos should be out by the summer of 1998. Wyckoff, Mac. "Kershaw's Brigade at Gettysburg." Gettysburg Magazine. July, 1991. Wyckoff, Mac. "Kershaw's Brigade at Savage Station." The Peninsula Campaign of 1862: Yorktown to the Seven Days. Vol. II. William J. Miller, editor. Campbell, CA: Savas Woodbury Publishers, 1995.




FEATURES: CIVIL WAR UNITS: Kershaw's Brigade, CSA [BACK]



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