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"A Moment In Time"
Dan Roberts' history radio show daily transcripts, transcript archive and database.
We are in the process of editing and overhauling our timelines to broaden their scope and increase their usefulness as teaching tools. We plan to re-organize the content as well, grouping events by geographic regions first and then by category within each geographic region as the viewer "zooms in" on events in history.

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   [Timeline Sources]

Ancient History: 12,000 BCE to 476 CE Timeline

Year International
Relations &
Politics Science,
Technology & Discovery
Society &
Economics &
Daily Life
 c. 10000 BCE         (1) Dog first domesticated (Middle East)
(2) Development of intensive flock management in Zagros Mountains
 c. 8350 BCE     Earliest known walled city at Jericho
 c. 8000 BCE         (1) Potatoes and beans first cultivated in South America
(2) Earliest permanent farming villages in Fertile Crescent
 c. 7500 BCE     First manufacture of textiles in the Middle East using flax
 c. 7000 BCE         Goats, sheep, and pigs domesticated (Middle East)
 c. 6200 BCE     Copper smelting in Asia Minor
 c. 6000 BCE     Irrigation in Zagros Mountains
  (1) Cat domesticated (Northeast Africa)
(2) Cattle domesticated (Turkey)
 c. 5500 BCE     Cotton cultivated in India
 c. 5200 BCE         Chickens domesticated (China)
 c. 5000 BCE     Irrigation spreads to Mesopotamia
 c. 4500 BCE     Sail, plow, and potter's wheel invented in Mesopotamia
 c. 4300 BCE       Megalithic tombs in Western Europe
c. 4300-3100; Spread of cities in Mesopotamia
 c. 4000 BCE         Horse domesticated (Eurasian steppe)
 c. 3800 BCE     Bronze in Mesopotamia
 c. 3650 BCE     Wheeled vehicles in Mesopotamia
 c. 3500 BCE     Pottery in South America
  Permanent fishing villages in South America
 c. 3400 BCE     Earliest hieroglyphics in Egypt
 c. 3150 BCE   Unification of Egypt under King Menes
 3000 BCE     Sumerians develop Cuneiform writing
  Potatoes, alpacas, and llamas domesticated (Andes Mountains)
 2900 BCE     Defensive walls around cities become more prevalent
 2700 BCE       Yin and Yang theory developed in China
Olive trees cultivated (Crete)
 2630 BCE     c. 2630; First pyramid constructed in Egypt; Imhotep is first known architect
 2600 BCE         (1) Urbanization in Indus River Valley
(2) Preservation of fish and poultry (Egypt)
 2575 BCE   c. 2575-2134; Old Kingdom of Egypt
 2528 BCE     c. 2528; Cheops buried in First Great Pyramid at Giza
 2400 BCE     First wheeled war wagons in Mesopotamia
 2350 BCE   Earliest known law code in Sumer
 2334 BCE   c. 2334-2193; Sargon unifies Sumer and Akkad, creating Akkadian Empire
  c. 2334-2193; First deification of kings in Sumer
 2300 BCE         Earliest permanent farming villages in Mesoamerica
 2296 BCE     Chinese record a comet
 2200 BCE   Legendary Xia Dynasty in China
    Dogs, goats, pigs, oxen, and sheep domesticated in China
 2134 BCE   Collapse of central authority in Egypt; End of Old Kingdom
 2100 BCE       First Ziggurats in Sumer
 2040 BCE   c. 2040-1650; Mentuhotep restores centralized government in Egypt marking the beginning of the Middle Kingdom
 2000 BCE Hittites establish empire in Anatolia (modern Turkey)
c. 2000 - 1450; Minoan palace civilization on Crete
(-2000 to -1450) 
Decimal notation in Babylon
(1) Stonehenge in Southern England
(2) Epic of Gilgamesh is first written myth
Tea and bananas cultivated (India)
 1813 BCE Emergence of Assyrian power under Shamshi-Adad I
(-1813 to -1781)
 1800 BCE c. 1800-1750; Hammurabi establishes Babylonian Empire
c. 1800-1750; Hammurabi's Code is first written legal code
Irrigation in South America
Earliest prohibitions against pork among shepherd tribes in Middle East
 1750 BCE       Collapse of Indus River Valley civilization at Mohenjo-daro and Harappa
 1700 BCE c. 1700-1650; Chariot-equipped Hyksos begin invasions and conquer Middle Kingdom Egypt
  Spread of two-wheeled war chariot in Middle East
  First evidence of leavened bread (Egypt)
 1600 BCE   (1) Rise of Mycenaean Civilization in mainland Greece
(2) c. 1600; First historical dynasty in China (The Shang)
(1) Canaanites invent first alphabet
(2) Pictographic writing in China
 1550 BCE   Ahmose reunites Egypt; c. 1550-1070; New Kingdom in Egypt
 1500 BCE c. 1504-1492; Thutmose I expands Egypt into Palestine, Syria, and Nubia
  Geometry developed in Egypt
  (1) Silkworm domesticated (China)
(2) c. 1500 Rabbit domesticated (Europe)
 1458 BCE   Thutmose III ascends to Egyptian throne; First usage of the term Pharaoh
 1450 BCE Mycenaean Greeks conquer Minoan Civilization on Crete
    Brahma worship in India
 1440 BCE     First metalworking in South America
 1400 BCE     Iron Age begins in Asia Minor
  Maize cultivation in Mesoamerica
 1353 BCE       Amenhotep IV introduces monotheism to Egypt
 1350 BCE     War chariot introduced to China
 1333 BCE       Tutankhaman (King Tut) reestablishes polytheism as official religion in Egypt
 1200 BCE   (1) c. 1200-400; Olmec Civilization in Mesoamerica
(2) c. 1200-1100; Bronze Age palaces destroyed throughout Mediterranean world
  c. 1200-1100; Judaism established in Palestine
c. 1200-800; Rise of Phoenician maritime dominance in the Mediterranean
 1150 BCE         Aristocrats in Egypt use chairs
 1122 BCE   c. 1122-256; Zhou Dynasty in China
 1100 BCE     Phoenician traders begin spreading alphabet throughout Mediterranean
 1070 BCE   End of New Kingdom in Egypt
 1047 BCE   c. 1047-1007 BCE; Saul reigns as first Hebrew king in Judaea
 1006 BCE c. 1006-965; David becomes king of Israel and conquers Jerusalem
 957 BCE       Solomon builds first Jewish temple in Jerusalem
 900 BCE   Etruscans establish cities in Tuscany
 883 BCE Revival of Assyrian power under Ashurnasirpal II
(-883 to -859)
 850 BCE       c. 850-750; Approximate date of written transcriptions of Homer's Iliad and Odyssey from existing oral tradition
 814 BCE   Traditional date for the founding of Carthage
 800 BCE     (1) Hieroglyphic script in Mesoamerica
(2) c. 800-750; Development of Greek alphabet
Olmecs build pyramids in Central America (modern Mexico)
 780 BCE   c. 780-755; Alara establishes Napata Kingdom of Kush
 776 BCE       First Olympic Games held in Greece
 772 BCE       Construction begins on Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, one of Seven Wonders of the Ancient World
 771 BCE   Destruction of the Zhou capital at Hào marks end of Western Zhou Dynasty in China; Beginning of Eastern Zhou Dynasty
 753 BCE   Traditional date of the founding of Rome
 744 BCE Tiglath-Pileser III succeeds in Assyria; Conquers Syria, Palestine, Israel, and Babylon
(-744 to -727)
 722 BCE Sargon II seizes power in Assyria; destroys the Kingdom of Israel
c. 722-481; Spring and Autumn Period in China; Decentralization and rise of powerful nobles
 720 BCE     Chinese record solar eclipse
 700 BCE     Aqueducts in the Middle East
 671 BCE Assyrians conquer Egypt
 660 BCE   Legendary date for foundation of Japan by Emperor Jimmu; Celebrated in Japan as National Foundation Day
 657 BCE   Cypselus becomes first tyrant in Corinth
 650 BCE         First coins used by Lydians
 621 BCE   First written legal code in Athens attributed to Draco
 612 BCE Babylonians sack Nineveh; Assyrian power collapses
 609 BCE     Nekan of Egypt launches first known circumnavigation of Africa
 605 BCE Babylonians defeat last Assyrian army at Megiddo; End of Assyria as an independent kingdom
 600 BCE c. 600; Greeks colonize southern France
    c. 600; Sappho is priestess of love cult on Lesbos
 594 BCE   Solon's reforms in Athens
 587 BCE Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon destroys Jerusalem; Babylonian Captivity of the Jews begins
 585 BCE     Greek astronomer Thales predicts an eclipse
 565 BCE       Spread of Taoism in China
 553 BCE       c. 553; Death of Zoroaster; Teachings emphasizing monotheism and eschatology become official religion of Persian Empire
 550 BCE   Persian Empire unified by Cyrus II; Beginning of Achaemenid Dynasty
Earliest use of cast iron in China
 539 BCE Babylonian empire conquered by Cyrus the Great of Persia
 530 BCE     Greek mathematician Pythagoras
 522 BCE Darius I rises to power in Persia; Expands Persian Empire to its maximum extent
 520 BCE     Canal completed between the Nile River and Red Sea
 517 BCE       Hsiao Yen (Wu Ti) backs Buddhist missionary efforts in central China
 515 BCE       c. 515; Birth of Parmenides, who becomes founder of metaphysics
 509 BCE   Rome becomes a republic
 508 BCE   Cleisthenes' democratic reforms in Athens
 500 BCE       (1) c. 500; Polynesian culture develops in Fiji, Samoa, and Tonga
(2) Earliest versions of Sun Tzu's The Art of War
(3) Heraclitus becomes one of the earliest dialectical philosophers
c. 500 Honeybee domesticated (Europe)
 499 BCE Ionian Revolt marks beginning of Persian-Greek Wars
 498 BCE       Pindar begins composing his Odes
 495 BCE       c. 495-483; Confucius teaches throughout China
 490 BCE Athenians defeat Persians at Battle of Marathon
 480 BCE (1) Spartan army under King Leonidas defeated by Persians at Battle of Thermopylae
(2) Greek fleet defeats Persian fleet at Battle of Salamis
c. 480-221; Warring States Period in China; Seven regional warlords fight for dominance in China
 479 BCE Battles of Plataea and Mycale mark the end of Spartan leadership of the Greek coalition against Persia
 478 BCE Athens founds Delian League to lead the Greek war against Persia
 472 BCE       Aeschylus's tragedy Persae performed
 466 BCE Delian League decisively defeats Persian fleet at Battle of Eurymedon River
 461 BCE   Golden Age of Athens begins; Pericles funds massive public works in city
 458 BCE   Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus becomes dictator of Rome then retires; One of the founding myths of Roman Virtue
 457 BCE First Peloponnesian War; Sparta dominant in Peloponnesian Peninsula
(-457 to -445)
 455 BCE       Anaxagoras teaches atomistic theory of the natural world
 450 BCE         Reindeer domesticated (Central Asia)
 441 BCE       First stage success of Euripides in Athens
 440 BCE       Sophocles' tragedy Antigone
 438 BCE       Phidias completes Parthenon
 431 BCE Second Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta begins
    Euripides' Medea
 430 BCE       (1) Death of Empedocles, who developed Four Elements theory of the natural world
(2) c. 430; Herodotus writes his History
Hippocrates teaches in Athens
 429 BCE       c. 429, Sophocles' Oedipus Rex
 428 BCE       Euripides' Hippolytus; portrays struggle between sexual desire and asceticism
 426 BCE       Euripides' Andromache
 423 BCE       Aristophanes' comedy The Clouds
 421 BCE       Aristophanes' comedy The Peace
 420 BCE       c. 420-413; Sophocles' Electra
 415 BCE Athens sends large expeditionary force to Sicily; Athenians are decisively defeated
    Euripides' The Trojan Women
 411 BCE Outnumbered Athenian fleet defeats Spartans at Battle of Cynossema
    Aristophanes' anti-war satire Lysistrata
 405 BCE With Persian aid, Spartan fleet decisively defeats Athenians at the battle of Aegospotami
 404 BCE Athens surrenders, marking end of Peloponnesian War
Sparta establishes government of the "Thirty Tyrants" and suspends democracy in Athens
 403 BCE   Thrasybulus overthrows "Thirty Tyrants" and reestablishes democracy in Athens
 401 BCE Battle of Cunaxa; Xenophon and 10,000 Greek mercenaries retreat through Persian Empire
    (1) Posthumous production of Sophocles' Oedipus at Colonus
(2) Death of Thucydides, who leaves behind The History of the Peloponnesian War
 399 BCE       Trial and death of Socrates
 385 BCE       Plato establishes his Academy
 371 BCE Thebes defeats Sparta at Battle of Leuctra; Spartan helots freed
 367 BCE       Aristotle begins study at Plato's Academy
 359 BCE   Philip II becomes king in Macedon
 350 BCE         c. 350; Earliest Mayan city-states
 343 BCE Rome subdues Campania in First Samnite War
(-343 to -341)
 340 BCE Athens forms Hellenic League to resist Philip II of Macedon
 338 BCE Philip II of Macedon defeats Greek army at Battle of Chaeronea; End of independent Greek city-states
 336 BCE Philip II of Macedon assassinated; Alexander rises to power in Macedon
 335 BCE Alexander destroys the rebellious city of Thebes and enslaves its population
    Aristotle opens the Lyceum
 334 BCE Alexander the Great Invades Asia Minor and defeats Persians at Granicus River
 332 BCE Alexander conquers Palestine and Egypt
Alexander the Great founds Alexandria in Egypt
 331 BCE Alexander defeats Persians at Gaugamela; Effectively destroys Persian army
 330 BCE (1) Alexander the Great enters Babylon; Conquers Persian Empire
(2) Darius III assassinated by Persian satrap Bessus
 329 BCE Alexander the Great reaches India
 326 BCE Macedonian army defeats King Porus at the battle of The Hydaspes River; Alexander the Great's army mutinies and refuses to march farther into India
 325 BCE         First historical reference to sugar cane by Nearchus
 324 BCE       Menander introduces 'New Comedy' to Greece
 323 BCE (1) Alexander's general Ptolemy establishes control of Egypt
(2) Alexander the Great dies; Wars of the Diadochoi (Successors) begin
 322 BCE   Chandragupta Maurya establishes the Mauryan Empire in northern India
 312 BCE Seleucus establishes Seleucid Empire in Mesopotamia
  Appius Claudius Caecus begins construction of the Appian Way in Rome
 301 BCE Antigonus dies at battle of Ipsus; Dissolution of Alexander's empire is confirmed
    Zeno introduces Stoic philosophy in Athens
 300 BCE     (1) c. 300; Coal technology in Greece
(2) Euclid's Elements
c. 300 BCE; Epicurus founds school of philosophy in Athens
c. 300; Rise of horse-nomadism among Turko-Mongol tribes of Central Asia
 290 BCE Rome completes conquest of Samnites; Effectively controls Italy
    Approximate date for the construction of the Library of Alexandria
 289 BCE       Chinese ruler/philosopher Mencius dies; Responsible for refining Confucianism
 283 BCE       Pharos lighthouse in Alexandria
 281 BCE       Completion of the Colossus of Rhodes, one of Seven Wonders of the Ancient World
 272 BCE Rome conquers Tarentum and unifies Italian Peninsula
 270 BCE     c. 270; Aristarchos of Samos proposes heliocentric universe
 264 BCE First Punic War begins between Rome and Carthage
 260 BCE       (1) c. 260; Mauryan king Ashoka converts to Buddhism
(2) c. 260; First gladiatorial games in Rome
 256 BCE   End of Eastern Zhou Dynasty in China
 241 BCE First Punic War ends after Carthaginian defeat at the battle of the Aegates Islands; Rome conquers Sicily and makes it the first Roman province
 238 BCE   Arsaces establishes independent kingdom of Parthia
 221 BCE   China united by the first emperor Shih Huang-ti; Beginning of Qin Dynasty and Imperial China
  Chinese Emperor Shih Huang-ti outlaws and persecutes Confucianism
 219 BCE Second Punic War between Rome and Carthage begins
 217 BCE Roman army ambushed and destroyed at Battle of Lake Trasimene
 216 BCE Hannibal's Carthaginian army destroys 16 Roman legions at Battle of Cannae
 212 BCE     Archimedes dies during siege of Syracuse; Regarded as one of the greatest ancient scientists
 210 BCE   Chinese Emperor Shih Huang-ti dies; Buried in massive mausoleum with the Terracotta Army
 206 BCE Roman army under Scipio Africanus defeats Carthaginians at battle of Ilipa; Rome conquers Hispania
Han Dynasty established in China
 202 BCE Roman army under Scipio Africanus defeats Hannibal at Zama; Second Punic War ends with Rome dominant in the Mediterranean
 200 BCE         c. 200, Polynesians settle Tahiti
 190 BCE Rome defeats Seleucid king Antiochus III at battle of Magnesia; Rome secures control of Greece and gains territory in Asia Minor
 179 BCE     Earliest dated stone arched bridge constructed over the Tiber River
 171 BCE Third Macedonian War between Rome and Macedon
(-171 to -168)
 170 BCE     Paved streets in Rome
 168 BCE Rome defeats Philip V of Macedon at battle of Pydna; Rome assures dominance in Greece
 167 BCE Mattahias the Hasmonian begins Maccabean Revolt against Seleucid rule in Judea
 150 BCE       (1) c. 150; El Mirador (Guatemala) has become largest center of Mayan civilization
(2) c. 150; Polybius publishes first part of The Histories
 149 BCE Third Punic War between Rome and Carthage begins; Roman army besieges Carthage
 146 BCE (1) Romans capture Carthage; Carthaginian territory incorporated into Roman province of Africa
(2) Rome eliminates democracies in Greece
 144 BCE Mithridates I of Parthia conquers Babylonia, Media, and Persia
(-144 to -138)
 142 BCE   Simon Maccabeus creates Hasmonean Dynasty in Judea; Independent Jewish state until 63 BCE
 135 BCE   c. 135-132; First Slave Revolt in Sicily
 133 BCE   Tiberius Gracchus elected tribune in Rome and proposes land reform; Murdered by aristocratic opponents
 130 BCE         Silk Road expands after Chinese emperor Wu Di sends emissaries into Central Asia
 123 BCE   Gaius Gracchus proposes price controls in Rome, sparking aristocratic opposition
 121 BCE   Gaius Gracchus killed during insurrection
 110 BCE         Cultured oyster beds in Southern Italy
 107 BCE   Gaius Marius abolishes land qualifications for military service in Rome
 105 BCE Proto-Germanic Cimbri and Teutones destroy a Roman army at battle of Arausio
 104 BCE Second Slave Revolt in Sicily
(-104 to -100)
 102 BCE Roman army under Gaius Marius defeats Teutones at battle of Aquae Sextiae
 100 BCE   Saturnus and Glauca propose price controls in Rome; Both are mudered with support of Gaius Marius
 91 BCE   Social War begins in Italy; Roman allies rebel
 88 BCE   (1) Social War ends; Italian allies gain Roman citizenship
(2) Sulla marches on Rome; First Civil War in Rome
 86 BCE   Gaius Marius dies suddenly, ending First Civil War in Rome
 75 BCE     Greek physician Asclepiades makes distinction between chronic and acute disease; Develops theories of diet and exercise
 73 BCE   Spartacus leads slave revolt against Rome
 71 BCE   Slave Revolt under Spartacus defeated by Crassus and Pompey
 70 BCE   Pompey and Crassus restore the powers of the Tribunate and resume grain distribution in Rome
 63 BCE Judea becomes client-kingdom of Rome
 60 BCE   1st Triumvirate of Julius Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus
 58 BCE Julius Caesar invades Gaul; Gallic Wars begin
 53 BCE Parthians crush Roman army at battle of Carrhae; Crassus killed afterward
War of the First Triumvirate begins
 51 BCE   Cleopatra assumes Egyptian throne
  Cicero's De Republica
 49 BCE   Caesar crosses Rubicon with his army
 48 BCE Caesar defeats Senetorial army under Crassus at Pharsalus
 47 BCE   Pompey assassinated
 45 BCE Julius Caesar defeats conservative republican army at the Battle of Munda; Caesar returns to Rome to rule as dictator
    Julius Caesar enforces the Julian Calendar developed by Sosigenes of Alexandria
 44 BCE   Julius Caesar named dictator for life; Assassinated by Senatorial opponents
 43 BCE   2nd Triumvirate of Octavian, Marcus Aemilius, and Mark Antony
 42 BCE Marcus Junius Brutus defeated at the Second Battle of Philippi; Commits suicide soon after
    (1) Virgil begins his Eclogues
(2) Second Triumvirate deifies Julius Caesar; Origin of Caesar worship
 37 BCE   Herod the Great confirmed as King of Judaea
 35 BCE       First volume of Horace's Satires
 32 BCE   Mark Antony divorces Octavian's sister; Civil war resumes
 31 BCE   Octavian defeats Mark Antony at Battle of Actium; War of Second Triumvirate ends
 30 BCE   (1) Antony and Cleopatra commit suicide
(2) Egypt becomes personal property of Octavian; Serves as financial power base for he and successive emperors
Sundial in China
 27 BCE   Octavian gains title Caesar Augustus; Rules Rome informally as first emperor
 19 BCE     Pont du Gard aqueduct completed in Nîmes, France
Virgil dies; Augustus immediately publishes the Aeneid
 18 BCE       Ovid's Amores
 15 BCE Augustus expands Rome's frontier to the Danube River
 4       c. 4; Approximate date of the birth of Jesus
 6 CE Rome incorporates client-kingdom of Judea into new province of Iudaea
 7       Ovid's Metamorphoses
 9 Germanic revolt against Rome under Arminius; Destroys Varus and three legions at battle of Teutoburg Forest
 14   Roman Emperor Augustus dies; Tiberius succeeds
 16 Romans defeat Arminius but German tribes remain independent
 17       Livy, Roman historian, dies leaving behind his 142-volume history of Rome, Ab Urbe Condita
 25   c. 25-220; Eastern Han dynasty established by Guang Wudi
 27       c. 27; Jesus is baptized and begins ministry
 30     Water-powered bellows and iron furnace in China
c. 30; Crucifixion and death of Jesus
 37   Roman Emperor Tiberius dies; Caligula succeeds
 41   Roman emperor Caligula murdered; Claudius succeeds
 46       Paul of Tarsus begins missionary work in Asia Minor
 50   c. 50; Londinium (London) founded
 54   Roman Emperor Claudius poisoned; Nero succeeds
 63       Seneca's work of stoic philosophy, Epistolae Morales
 64       Fires destroy half of Rome; Nero blames Christians and begins persecutions
 66 First Jewish Revolt against Roman rule in Judaea
    Petronius' Satyricon
 67       Official introduction of Buddhism into China
 68   Roman emperor Nero commits suicide; End of Julio-Claudian Dynasty
 69   Year of the Four Emperors in Rome; Vespasian founds Flavian Dynasty
 70 Roman army under Titus captures Jerusalem and destroys Jewish Temple
 73       Jewish Zealots commit mass suicide at Masada
 76 Chinese army defeats Xiongnu nomads (Probably the early Huns)
 79   Roman emperor Vespasian dies; Titus succeeds
  Pliny the Elder killed in Pompeii during eruption of Vesuvius
 80       Colosseum opens in Rome
 81   Roman emperor Titus dies; Domitian succeeds
 96   Roman emperor Domitian assassinated; Nerva succeeds
 98   Roman emperor Nerva dies; Trajan succeeds
 100         c. 100 Turkey domesticated (Mexico)
 105     Zailun invents new paper production technique in China
Tacitus' Historiae
 106   Dacia (Romania) becomes Roman province
 113       Trajan's Column erected in newly rebuilt Roman Forum
 114 Rome annexes Armenia
 115 Emperor Trajan expands the Roman frontier to the Tigris River
 117   Roman emperor Trajan dies; After series of revolts, Hadrian succeeds
  Tacitus' Annales
 120       c. 120; Plutarch's Parallel Lives
 121       Seutonius' Lives of the Caesars
 122 Hadrian's Wall built in Britain
 125       Approximate date of completion of the Pantheon in Rome
 132       c. 132-135; Jewish Rebellion in Jerusalem
 135       Hadrian orders destruction of Jerusalem and enforces a diaspora of the Jews
 138   Roman emperor Hadrian dies; Antoninus Pius succeeds
 155       Martyrdom of Polycarp, an early Christian bishop in Smyrna; His Letter to the Philippians among earliest Christian writings to survive
 161   Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius dies; Marcus Aurelius succeeds
 164         c. 164-180; Plague (probably smallpox) hits Rome
 167 Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius leads series of successful campaigns against Germanic tribes
(167 to 176)
 180   Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius dies; Commodus succeeds
Galen's Methodus Medendo; Becomes ultimate medical authority for centuries
Marcus Aurelius' Meditations; Stoic philosophy
 184   (1) Diocletian becomes Roman emperor; Begins administrative division of Eastern and Western Roman Empire
(2) Revolt of the Yellow Turbans in China
 192   Roman Emperor Commodus murdered
 193   After series of murders, Septimus Severus uses army to become Roman emperor
 197       Approximate date of Tertullian's conversion to Christianity; Introduced the term Trinity into Christian theology
 200       Judah haNasi compiles Mishnah, the foundation of Talmudic Law
 211   Roman emperor Septimus Severus dies; Caracalla succeeds
 212   Caracalla extends Roman citizenship to all free males in the Empire
 217   Roman emperor Caracalla murdered by army officers; Macrinus succeeds
 218   Roman emperor Macrinus killed in battle; Heliogabalus succeeds
 220   c. 220-280; Han Dynasty falls in China; Replaced by Period of the Three Kingdoms
 222   Roman emperor Heliogabulus murdered; Severus Alexander succeeds
 224   Parthian Arsacid Dynasty overthrown; Beginning of Sassanian Dynasty in Persia
 225     c. 225; Early form of gunpowder developed in China
  c. 225; Tea drinking becomes common in China
 235   Roman Emperor Severus Alexander buys peace from Alemanni in Gaul; Murdered by his troops; Maximinus succeeds
 238   Roman emperor Maximinus murdered by Praetorian Guard; Gordianus III succeeds
 241 Shapur I expands the Sassanid Empire at the expense of Roman territory
(241 to 272)
 244   Roman emperor Gordianus III killed by Praetorian Guard; Philippus succeeds
 247       Philippus holds games to celebrate millennial anniversary of the founding of Rome
 249   Decius proclaimed Roman emperor by troops; Philippus assassinated
 250       Roman emperor Decius begins systematic persecution of Christians to ensure dominance of paganism
 251   Roman emperor Decius killed fighting Goths; Gallus succeeds
 253   Roman emperor Gallus overthrown; After brief civil war Valerian succeeds
 260 Persian King Shapur I defeats Roman army and seizes emperor Valerian
Gallienus becomes Roman emperor
Great Wall of China begun
 268 Roman emperor Claudius II repels invasion of Goths; Gains title Gothicus
Roman emperor Gallienus murdered by troops; Claudius II succeeds
 270   Roman emperor Claudius II dies of the plague; Aurelian succeeds
 271     Magnetic Compass used in China
 274 Aurelian defeats rebels at Châlons to restore Roman authority in Gaul
 275   Roman emperor Aurelian murdered; Tacitus succeeds
  c. 275; Anthony begins hermetic life of study; Beginning of Christian Monasticism
 276   Roman emperor Tacitus murdered by troops; Period of civil war and instability in Rome
  Mani executed; Teachings will become Manichaeism, which combines Christian salvation and Zoroastrian dualism
 280   Western Jin emperor reunites China; Beginning of Jin Dynasty
 291   Rebellion of the Eight Princes in China
 301       Armenia becomes first state to officially adopt Christianity
 303       Roman emperor Diocletian begins the Great Persecution of Christians and Manicheans in the empire
 305   Diocletian and Maximian abdicate as co-emperors; Civil war erupts
 306       Baths of Diocletian open in Rome, the most lavish public bath in Rome
 311   Nomadic invasions divide China; Sixteen Kingdoms in North China and Jin Capital at Nanjing
 312   Constantine defeats Maxentius at battle of Milvian Bridge; Becomes sole emperor in the Western Roman Empire
 313       Constantine issues the Edict of Milan granting official toleration to Christianity in the Roman Empire
 320   Chandragupta I founds Gupta Dynasty in India
 321       Sunday becomes the Sabbath in Roman Empire
 324   Constantine defeats Licinius to become sole emperor of Rome
 325       Council of Nicaea; Arian Christianity condemned
 330   Constantinople made capital of Roman Empire
  Construction begins on St. Peter's Basilica in Rome
 335       The Church of the Holy Sepulchre is consecrated in Jerusalem
 337   Roman emperor Constantine dies; Three sons succeed
 341       Coptic Christianity introduced to Ethiopia
 350 Huns invade Persia
 360 (1) Huns invade Europe
(2) Picts invade Roman Britain
 361   Julian becomes Roman emperor
 362       Roman emperor Julian decrees religious toleration in the empire and attempts to reestablish paganism
 363   Roman Empire redivided into Eastern and Western halves
 372       Spread of Buddhism in China and Korea
 376 Visigoths permitted to settle in Balkans by Rome
 378 Visigoth cavalry destroys Roman army and kills emperor Valens at battle of Adrianople
 379 Roman emperor Theodosius makes treaty with Visigoths as military allies of Rome
 380       Theodosius I establishes Catholic Christianity as the official state religion of the Roman Empire
 390       Bishop Ambrose of Milan forces emperor Theodosius to do public penance for a massacre of 7,000 in Thessalonica
 391       Roman emperor Theodosius orders all non-Christian books burned
 393       Olympic games forbidden by Emperor Theodosius
 395   (1) Emperor Theodosius dies
(2) Roman Empire permanently divided
 396 Visigoths under Alaric invade Greece
 397       Augustine's Confessions
 401 Visigoths under Alaric invade Italy
 403   Western Roman capital moved to Ravenna
 406 Vandals invade Gaul, sacking numerous Roman cities
 409 (1) Vandals invade Iberian Peninsula
(2) Revolt in Britain marks the end of Roman rule
 410 Visigoths under King Alaric sack Rome
 411       Augustine's The City of God
 420   Nanking capital of China
 427   Korean capital established at Pyongyang
 431       Council of Ephesus exiles Nestorius; Emergence of cult of the Virgin Mary
 433   Attila becomes leader of the Huns
 438       Roman law since 312 published in Codex Theodosianus
 439   Vandals establish capital at Carthage
 449 Saxons and Angles invade Britain
 451 Attila and Huns defeated in Gaul at battle of Chalons; Last great military campaign by Western Roman Empire
  c. 451; Spread of stirrups and metal horseshoes throughout Europe by the Huns
 452   Venice founded
 453 Attila dies; Huns expelled from Italy
 455   c. 455; Mayan city of Cichen Itza founded in Yucatan Peninsula
 473 King Euric of the Visigoths declares Gaul independent of Roman rule
 476   (1) Odoacer deposes emperor Romulus Augustus and becomes King of Italy; Formal end of the Western Roman Empire
(2) Traditional date for the beginning of the Middle Ages in Europe
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