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Middle East Timeline
Date Event
10000 BC
  10000 bc Development of intensive flock management in Zagros Mountains   [Iraq]
7500 BC
  7500 bc First manufacture of textiles in the Middle East using flax
1800 BC
  1800 bc Earliest prohibitions against pork among shepherd tribes in Middle East
1200 BC
  1200 bc c. 1200-1100; Judaism established in Palestine
  1200 bc c. 1200-1100; Hebrews begin to settle in Canaan
1006 BC
  1006 bc c. 1006-965; David becomes king of Israel and conquers Jerusalem
957 BC
  957 bc Solomon builds first Jewish temple in Jerusalem
850 BC
  850 bc c. 850; Medes migrate into Iran   [Persian Empire]
587 BC
  587 bc Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon destroys Jerusalem; Babylonian Captivity of the Jews begins
539 BC
  539 bc Babylonian empire conquered by Cyrus the Great of Persia
312 BC
  312 bc Seleucus establishes Seleucid Empire in Mesopotamia
167 BC
  167 bc Mattahias the Hasmonian begins Maccabean Revolt against Seleucid rule in Judea
165 BC
  165 bc Judas Maccabeaus restores the Temple of Jerusalem
144 BC
  144 bc Mithridates I of Parthia conquers Babylonia, Media, and Persia   [Persian Empire]
142 BC
  142 bc Simon Maccabeus creates Hasmonean Dynasty in Judea; Independent Jewish state until 63 BCE
37 BC
  37 bc Herod the Great confirmed as King of Judaea
4 BC
  4 bc c. 4; Approximate date of the birth of Jesus   [Israel]
27
  27 c. 27; Jesus is baptized and begins ministry
30
  30 c. 30; Crucifixion and death of Jesus   [Israel]
70
7 September 70 Roman army under Titus captures Jerusalem and destroys Jewish Temple   [Rome]
132
  132 c. 132-135; Jewish Rebellion in Jerusalem
622
16 July 622 Muhammad forced to flee Mecca for Medina; Becomes basis for Islamic tradition of the hijra   [Saudi Arabia]
630
  630 Muhammad returns to Mecca with the Koran
632
7 June 632 Muhammad dies; Abu Bakr becomes caliph in Medina
634
23 August 634 Abu Bakr dies; Umar becomes caliph
636
15 August 636 Battle of Yarmuk; Islamic forces under Khalid ibn al-Walid conquer Syria and Palestine
637
  637 Islamic armies invade Mesopotamia
638
  638 Islamic forces capture Jerusalem
641
  641 Founding of Fostat (Cairo) in Egypt   [Egypt]
644
7 November 644 Caliph Umar assassinated; Uthman becomes caliph
661
  661 Caliph Ali assassinated; Muawiyah moves capital to Damascus and founds Umayyad Dynasty
670
  670 Kallikinos invents Greek fire in Constantinople
678
  678 Umayyad forces forced to lift siege of Constantinople after decisive naval defeat at the battle of Syllaeum   [Byzantine Empire]
692
  692 Dome of the Rock is completed by Caliph Abdel-Malik
695
  695 First Islamic coins minted in Damascus
701
  701 Arab sailors visit Moluccas and Indonesia for the first time
710
  710 Islamic forces conquer Tangiers; Caliphate controls entire North African coast
750
  750 Abu al-Abbas as-Saffah overthrows Umayyad Caliphate and establishes Abbasid Dynasty
762
  762 Caliphate moved to Baghdad
820
  820 Islamic law school established in Medina
833
  833 Al-Mamun founds observatory in Baghdad
837
  837 Carrier pigeon services established in Arab lands
872
  872 Ahmad ibn Talun establishes first hospital in Cairo; Hospitals now common throughout Arab world   [Egypt]
909
  909 Said ibn Hussein establishes Fatimid caliphate in Tunis
969
  969 Fatimids conquer Egypt and move capital to Cairo   [Egypt]
1040
  1040 Seljuk Turks conquer territories in Persia
1048
  1048 Seljuk Turks sack Erzurum; Maintain presence in Anatolia   [Byzantine Empire]
1050
  1050 Tughril Beg conquers Isfahan and establishes Seljuk capital there
1090
  1090 Yusuf ibn Tasfin founds Almoravid Dynasty in Granada
1092
  1092 Sultan Malik Shah dies; Seljuk empire collapses into civil war
1099
  1099 Godfrey of Bouillon founds Kingdom of Jerusalem from crusader conquests in Palestine
1145
  1145 Pope Eugene III proclaims Second Crusade to recapture Crusader Kingdom of Edessa
1169
  1169 Saladin becomes vizir of Egypt
1171
  1171 Last Fatimid caliph of Egypt dies leaving Saladin as effective ruler
1175
  1175 Saladin recognized as sultan of Egypt and Syria   [Egypt]
1183
  1183 Saladin captures Aleppo; Moves his capital to Damascus
1193
4 March 1193 Saladin dies   [West Bank and Gaza Strip]
1324
  1324 Ghazi Orkhan succeeds Osman I as Ottoman sultan
1331
  1331 Ottoman Turks capture Nicaea, the last remaining Byzantine territory in Asia   [Byzantine Empire]
1501
  1501 Safavid dynasty rules Iran (1501 - 1722)   [Iran (Islamic Republic of)]
1521
  1521 Portugal rules Bahrain 1521 - 1602   [Bahrain]
1602
  1602 Persia rules Bahrain 1602 - 1783   [Bahrain]
1744
  1744 Mohammed Ibn Saud founds first Saudi State   [Saudi Arabia]
1783
  1783 Sheikhs of Khalifa begin rule of Bahrain   [Bahrain]
1796
  1796 Qajar dynasty rules Iran (1796 - 1925)   [Iran (Islamic Republic of)]
1822
27 September 1822 Jean-Fran├žois Champollion announces the deciphering of the Rosetta stone   [Egypt]
1872
  1872 Qatar occupied by Ottoman Turks   [Qatar]
1881
  1881 1881 - 1882 First wave of Zionist immigration (aliyah) into Palestine   [Israel]
1896
  1896 Theodore Herzl writes Der Judenstaat (The Jewish State)   [Israel]
1897
  1897 First Zionist Congress starts program to resettle Jewish people in Palestine   [Israel]
1904
  1904 1904 - 1914 Second wave of Jewish immigration into Palestine   [Israel]
1908
3 July 1908 Young Turk Revolution of 1908 attempts to reform government institutions of the Ottoman Empire   [Ottoman Empire]
1910
  1910 First Jewish kibbutz -- Kibbutz Degania -- is founded   [Israel]
1916
  1916 British forces invade Mesopotamia (Iraq)   [Iraq]
1917
2 November 1917 The Balfour Declaration expresses official British support for the establishment of a Jewish homeland in Palestine   [United Kingdom]
1918
  1918 World War I ends; Allies carve up the Middle East; Britain takes control of Palestine
1920
25 April 1920 Mesopotamia becomes a British mandated territory under Article 22 of the League of Nations   [Iraq]
1921
  1921 Reza Khan siezes power during a military coup   [Iran (Islamic Republic of)]
1922
  1922 Kuwait-Saudi border negotiated   [Kuwait]
1924
  1924 Oil exploration begins in Oman   [Oman]
1925
15 December 1925 Reza Kahn establishes the Pahlavi dynasty in Iran and institutes a policy of modernization, secularization, and anti-communism   [Iran (Islamic Republic of)]
1932
  1932 Iraq becomes an independent country   [Iraq]
1936
  1936 1936 - 1939 Arabs revolt across Palestine   [Israel]
1939
  1939 British issues paper promising an independent Arab state in Palestine within ten years.   [Israel]
1941
  1941 Reza Shah abdicates; his son Muhammad Reza Shah Pahlavi becomes ruler   [Iran (Islamic Republic of)]
1943
22 November 1943 Lebanon Becomes Independent   [Lebanon]
1945
  1945 Turkey joins the United Nations   [Turkey]
1947
  1947 UN takes over Palestinian issue from Britain. UN votes to divide Palestine into a Jewish state and an Arab state; Jerusalem is to be an international city.   [Israel]
1948
14 May 1948 First Arab-Israeli Wars begins   [Israel]
14 May 1948 Britain mandate of Palestine ends.   [Israel]
15 May 1948 The State of Israel is officially created; David Ben Gurion becomes first Prime Minister.   [Israel]
1949
  1949 Egypt, Lebanon, Transjordan, and Syria sign armistice agreement with Israel   [Israel]
1952
  1952 Turkey becomes a member of NATO   [Turkey]
1956
  1956 Gamal Abdel-Nasser Becomes President of Egypt   [Egypt]
26 July 1956 Egypt Nationalizes Suez Canal   [Egypt]
1969
  1969 Yasser Arafat becomes head of the Palestine Liberation Organization   [West Bank and Gaza Strip]
1970
  1970 Hafez al-Assad becomes President of Syria   [Syrian Arab Republic]
28 September 1970 President Gamal Abdel-Nasser Dies, Anwar Sadat becomes president of Egypt   [Egypt]
1971
 August 1971 Bahrain declares its independence from Britain   [Bahrain]
2 December 1971 Zayid bin Sultan Al Nuhayyan Becomes President of UAE   [United Arab Emirates]
1973
  1973 Iraq joins Arab coalition against Israel during the October War   [Iraq]
1974
  1974 Turkey starts occupying northern Cyprus to prevent Greek takeover of island   [Turkey]
1975
 April 1975 Civil war breaks out in Lebanon   [Lebanon]
1976
 January 1976 Syrian army enters Lebanon   [Lebanon]
1978
 March 1978 Israeli troops invade Lebanon   [Lebanon]
27 October 1978 Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin named winners of the Nobel Peace Prize.   [Israel]
1979
 January 1979 Shah of Iran flees country   [Iran (Islamic Republic of)]
1 April 1979 Iran declared an Islamic republic by Ayatollah Khomeini   [Iran (Islamic Republic of)]
16 July 1979 Saddam Hussein Becomes President of Iraq   [Iraq]
4 November 1979 Iranian Militants Seize U.S. Embassy in Tehran   [Iran (Islamic Republic of)]
1980
 September 1980 Iran-Iraq War begins   [Iran (Islamic Republic of)]
1981
20 January 1981 Iran Releases U.S. Hostages   [Iran (Islamic Republic of)]
7 June 1981 Israel Bombs Iraqi Nuclear Reactor   [Israel]
17 July 1981 Israeli troops bomb the PLO headquarters in Beirut   [Israel]
6 October 1981 Anwar Sadat assassinated; Mohamed Hosni Mubarak becomes president of Egypt   [Egypt]
1982
  1982 Yasser Arafat and PLO leadership exiled to Tunis   [West Bank and Gaza Strip]
6 June 1982 Israel invades Lebanon   [Israel]
13 June 1982 Fahd bin Abd al-Aziz Saud Becomes King of Saudi Arabia   [Saudi Arabia]
1986
  1986 Sultan Qaboos University founded   [Oman]
1987
  1987 Palestinian uprising 'Intifada' breaks out in Gaza strip   [West Bank and Gaza Strip]
17 March 1987 Iraqi Exocet missile hits American Destroyer USS Stark; 37 crewmen are killed.   [United States]
1988
3 July 1988 The USS Vincennes shoots down Iranian Airbus Flight #655; 290 civilians are killed   [United States]
 August 1988 Iran-Iraq War ends   [Iraq]
1990
2 August 1990 Iraq invades Kuwait, beginning the Persian Gulf War   [Kuwait]
1991
26 February 1991 Kuwait Liberated   [Kuwait]
1994
  1994 Yasser Arafat returns to Palestinian soil   [West Bank and Gaza Strip]
26 October 1994 Jordan and Israel sign peace treaty.
 November 1994 Iraq formally accepts the UN-demarcated border with Kuwait   [Kuwait]
1998
24 November 1998 Emile Lahud Becomes President of Lebanon   [Lebanon]
1999
7 February 1999 King Hussein of Jordan Dies   [Jordan, Hashemite Kingdom of]
6 March 1999 Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa Assumes Power in Bahrain   [Bahrain]
2000
16 May 2000 Ahmet Necdet Sezer Becomes President of Turkey   [Turkey]
25 May 2000 Israel withdraws from southern Lebanon   [Israel]
10 June 2000 President Hafez al-Assad Dies   [Syrian Arab Republic]
12 October 2000 USS Cole Attacked in Aden   [Yemen]
2002
7 November 2002 U.N. Security Council passes resolution demanding that Iraq disarm   [United States]
2003
20 March 2003 United States and allied forces invade Iraq in Operation Iraqi Freedom   [United States]

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THESE ARE ARCHIVED PAGES OF THE OLD EHISTORY SITE
These pages are not actively maintained and may have errors in content and functionality