making, and so went forth brenning and destroying the country of Northumberland; and their currours ran to York and brent as much as was without the walls, and returned again to their host within a day's journey of Newcastle-upon-Tyne.
Of the battle of Newcastle-upon-Tyne between the queen of England and the king of Scots-
THE queen of England, who desired to defend her country, came to Newcastleupon-Tyne and there tarried for her men, who came daily from all parts. When the Scots knew that the Englishmen assembled at Newcastle, they drew thitherward and their currours came running before the town ; and at their returning they brent certain small hamlets thereabout, so that the smoke thereof came into the town of Newcastle. Some of the Englishmen would a issued out to have fought with them that made the fires, but the captains would not suffer them to issue out. The next day the king of Scots with a forty thousand men one and other came and lodged within three little English mile of Newcastle in the land of the lord Nevill ; and the king sent to them within the town, that if they would issue out into the field, he would fight with them gladly. The lords and prelates of England said they were content to adventure their lives with the right and heritage of the king of England their master. Then they all issued out of the town, and were in number a twelve hundred men of arms, three thousand archers, and seven thousand of other with the Welshmen. Then the Scots came and lodged against them near together: then every man was set in order of battle : then the queen came among her men 1 and there was ordained four battles, one to aid another. The first had in governance the bishop of Durham and the lord Percy ; the second the archbishop of York and the lord Nevill ; the third the bishop of Lincoln and the lord Mowbray ; the fourth the lord Edward de Balliol, captain of Berwick, 1 The queen was not present at Nevill's Cross, but had already passed over to the Continent (Kervyn de Lettenhove, v. 487). the archbishop of Canterbury and the lord Ros : every battle had like number after their quantity. The queen went from battle to battle desiring them to do their devoir to defend the honour of her lord the king of England, and in the name of God every man to be of good heart and courage, promising them that to her power she would remember them as well or better as though her lord the king were there personally. Then the queen departed from them, recommending them to God and to Saint George. Then anon after, the battles of the Scots began to set forward, and in like wise so did the Englishmen. Then the archers began to shoot on both parties, but the shot of the Scots endured but a short space, but the archers of England shot so fiercely, so that when the battles approached, there was a hard battle. They began at nine and endured till noon : the Scots had great axes sharp and hard, and gave with them many great strokes. Howbeit finally the Englishmen obtained the place and victory, but they lost many of their men. There were slain of the Scots the earl of Fife, the earl of Buchan, the earl Patrick, the earl of Sutherland, the earl of Strathern, the earl of Mar, the earl John Douglas, and the lord Alexander Ramsay, who bare the king's banner, and divers other knights and squires. And there the king was taken, who fought valiantly and was sore hurt. A squire of Northumberland took him, called John Copeland ; and as soon as he had taken the king, he went with him out of the field with eight of his servants with him, and so rode all that day, till he was a fifteen leagues from the place of the battle, and at night he came to a castle called Orgulus ; 1 and then he said he would not deliver the king of Scots to no man nor woman living, but all only to the king of England his lord. The same day there was also taken in the field the earl Moray, the earl of March, the lord William Douglas, the lord Robert Versy, the bishop of Aberdeen, the bishop of Saint Andrews, and divers other knights and barons. And there wer