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there was no realm could be compared to the realm of France. And then within a space after the king of France sent into England of his special council the bishop of Chartres and the bishop of Beauvais, the lord Louis of Clermont, the duke of Bourbon, the earl of Harcourt and the earl of Tancarville, with divers other knights and clerks, to the council of England, the which was then holden at London, for the performance of the king of England's homage, as ye have heard before. And also the king of Eng. land and his council had well overseen the manner and form, how his ancient predecessors had done their homage for the duchy of Acquitaine. There were many as then in England that murmured and said how the king their lord was nearer by true succession of heritage to the crown of France than Philip of Valois, who was as then king of France. Howbeit, the king and his council would not know it nor h s eak thereof as at that time. Thus was ere great assembly, and much ado bow this homage should be performed. These ambassadors tarried still in England all that winter, till it was the month of May following, or they had answer definitive. Howbeit, finally the king of England by the advice of his council and on the sight of his privileges, whereunto they gave great faith, was determined to write letters in the manner of patents sealed with his great seal, knowledging therein the homage that he ought to do to the king of France, the tenor and report of the which letters patents followeth : ' EDWARD, by the grace of God king of England, lord of Ireland, and duke of Acquitaine, to them that these present letters shall see or hear send greeting. We would it be known that as we made homage at Amiens to the right excellent prince, our right dear cousin, Philip king of France, and there it was required by him that we should knowledge the said homage, and to make it to him expressly, promising to bear him faith and troth, the which we did not as then, because we were not informed of the truth; we made him homage by general words, in saying how we entered into his homage in like manner as our predecessors, dukes of Guyenne, in times past had entered into the homage of the king of France for that time being ; and sith that time we have been well informed of the truth : therefore we knowledge by these presents that such homage as we have made in the city of Amiens to the king of France in general words was and ought to be understanded this word, liege man ; and that to him we owe to bear faith and troth as duke of Acquitaine and peer of France, earl of Ponthieu and of Montreuil.1 And to the intent in time coming that there should never be discord, for this cause we promise for us and our successors, dukes of Acquitaine, that this homage be made in this manner following. The king of England, duke of Acquitaine, boldeth his hands between the hands of the king of France, and he that shall address the words to the king of England, duke of Acquitaine, shall speak for the, king of France in this manner: Ye shall become liege man to the king, my lord here present, as duke of Guyenne and peer of France, and to him promise to bear faith and troth: say "Yea." And the king of England, duke of Guyenne, and his successors, saith "Yea." And then the king of France receiveth the king of England, duke of Guyenne, to this said homage as liege man, with faith and troth spoken by mouth,2 saving his right and all other. And furthermore when the said king entereth in homage to the king of France for the earldom of Ponthieu and

1 The translator has made sad work here. It should be : 'We make it known hereby that when we did homage at Amiens to the excellent prince our dear lord and cousin Philip king of France, it was said and required of us on his part that we should acknowledge the said homage to be liege homage, and that in doing the said homage we should promise expressly to bear faith and loyalty to him; the which thing we did not as then, because we were not informed of the truth. And we did homage then to the king of France in general w
2 ' A la for et a la bouce,' that is, 'homage de for et de bouche,' according to the usual forms.




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