A Puzzling War
The Tet Offensive at Da Nang
The Struggle for Hue-The Battle Begins
The Struggle for Hue-The Second Phase
Post-Tet in I Corps
The Siege of Khe Sanh
The Battle for Dong Ha
Khe Sanh: Final Operations and Evacuation
3d Division Takes the Offensive
The Third Offensive: Da Nang
Autumn Offensive Halted
Counteroffensive Operations in Southern ICTZ
The 3d Division's Labors Bear Fruit
A Question of Helicopters
Manpower Policies and Realities
Backing Up The Troops
Outside of III MAF
1968: An Overview
U.S. MARINES IN VIETNAM THE DEFINING YEAR 1968
Lieutenant Colonel Leonard A. Blasiol, U.S. Marine Corps
Charles R. Smith
and Captain David A. Dawson, U.S. Marine Corps
HISTORY AND MUSEUMS DIVISION
HEADQUARTERS, U.S. MARINE CORPS
U.S. Marines In Vietnam
The Defining Year
Volumes in the Marine Corps Vietnam Series
Operational Histories Series
U.S. Marines in Vietnam, 1954-1964, The Advisory and Combat Assistance Era, 1977
U.S. Marines in Vietnam, 1965, The Landing and the Buildup, 1978
U.S. Marines in Vietnam, 1966, An Expanding War, 1982
U.S. Marines in Vietnam, 1967, Fighting the North Vietnamese, 1984
U.S. Marines in Vietnam, 1969, High Mobility and Standdown, 1988
U.S. Marines in Vietnam, 1970-1971, Vietnamization and Redeployment, 1986
U.S. Marines in Vietnam, 1971-1973, The War that Would Not End, 1991
U.S. Marines in Vietnam, 1973-1975, The Bitter End, 1990
Functional Histories Series
Chaplains with Marines in Vietnam, 1962-1971, 1985
Marines and Military Law in Vietnam: Trial By Fire, 1989
Anthology and Bibliography
The Marines in Vietnam, 1954-1973, An Anthology and Annotated Bibliography, 1974; reprinted 1983; revised second edition, 1985
Library of Congress Card No. 77-604776 PCN 1900031 3900
For sale by the U.S. Government Priming Office
Superintendent of Documents, Mail Stop: SSOP, Washington, DC 20402-9328 ISBN 0-16-049125-8
This is the last volume, although published out of chronological sequence, in the nine-volume operational history series covering the Marine Corps' participation in the Vietnam War. A separate functional series complements the operational histories. This book is the capstone volume of the entire series in that 1968, as the title indicates, was the defining year of the war. While originally designed to be two volumes, it was decided that unity and cohesion required one book.
The year 1968 was the year of the Tet Offensive including Khe Sanh and Hue City. These were momentous events in the course of the war and they occurred in the first three months of the year. This book, however, documents that 1968 was more than just the Tet Offensive. The bloodiest month of the war for the U.S. forces was not January nor February 1968, but May 1968 when the Communists launched what was called their "Mini-Tet" offensive. This was followed by a second "Mini-Tet" offensive during the late summer which also was repulsed at heavy cost to both sides. By the end of the year, the U.S. forces in South Vietnam's I Corps, under the III Marine Amphibious Force (III MAF), had regained the offensive. By December, enemy-initiated attacks had fallen to their lowest level in two years. Still, there was no talk of victory. The Communist forces remained a formidable foe and a limit had been drawn on the level of American participation in the war.
Although largely written from the perspective of III MAF and the ground war in I Corps, the volume also treats the activities of Marines with the Seventh Fleet Special Landing Force, activities of Marine advisors to South Vietnamese forces, and other Marine involvement in the war. Separate chapters cover Marine aviation and the single manager controversy, artillery, logistics, manpower, and pacification.
Like most of the volumes in this series, this has been a cumulative history. Lieutenant Colonel Leonard A. Blasiol researched and wrote the initial drafts of the chapters on Khe Sanh as well as Chapters 17, 19, and 21 and the account of Operation Thor in Chapter 26. Mr. Charles R. Smith researched and drafted Chapters 16, 18, 20, and 22. Captain David A. Dawson researched and wrote Chapter 27. Dr. Jack Shulimson researched and wrote the remaining chapters, edited and revised the entire text, and incorporated the comments of the various reviewers.
Dr. Shulimson heads the History Writing Unit and is a graduate of the University of Buffalo, now the State University of New York at Buffalo. He earned his master's degree in history at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan and his doctorate from the University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland in American studies. Mr. Smith is a senior historian in the Division and served in Vietnam as an artilleryman and then as a historian with the U.S. Army. He is a graduate of the University of California, Santa Barbara, and received his masters degree in history from San Diego State University. Lieutenant Colonel Blasiol is an experienced artilleryman and a graduate of Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana, with a degree in history, and of the Marine Corps Command and Staff College. Captain Dawson is an infantry officer now stationed at Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. He holds a bachelor of arts degree in history from Cornell University, Ithaca, New York and a master's degree in history from Kansas State University, Lawrence, Kansas.
E. H. SIMMONS
Brigadier General, U.S. Marine Corps (Retired)
Director Emeritus of Marine Corps History and Museums
U.S. Marines in Vietnam, The Defining Year, 1968 like the preceding volumes in this series is largely based upon the holdings of the Marine Corps Historical Center. These include the official unit command chronologies, after-action reports, message and journal files, various staff studies, oral histories, personal papers, and reference collections. In addition, the authors have used the holdings of the other Services and pertinent published primary and secondary sources. Most importantly, nearly 230 reviewers, most of whom were participants in the events, read draft chapters and made substantive comments. They are listed by name in a separate appendix. While some classified sources have been used, none of the material in the text contains any classified information.
To a large extent, the measurement of this war relied not upon territory occupied, but upon casualties inflicted upon the enemy. In enumerating enemy casualties, the authors are not making any statement upon the reliability or accuracy of these numbers. These are merely the figures provided by the reporting units. They are important in that the U.S. military and national leadership depended in part upon the comparative casualty yardstick to report and evaluate progress in the war.
In any project this large and that involved so many people, the authors are in debt to several of their associates, past and present, in the History and Museums Division. While it is not possible to list everyone, we would be most negligent if we did not thank the following. First, Brigadier General Edwin H. Simmons, Director Emeritus, provided the vision and backing for the entire series, insisting upon readability and accuracy. Colonel Michael F. Monigan, Acting Director, gave the impetus for final completion of the project. Chief Historian Benis M. Frank, and his predecessor, Henry I. Shaw, Jr., furnished editorial guidance and encouragement. Ms. Wanda J. Renfrow of the Histories Section and Mr. Robert E. Struder, Head of Editing and Design, read the entire manuscript together with Mr. Frank and prevented several minor errors and some embarrassments. Mrs. Cathy A. Kerns, of the Editing and Design Section, typed the photograph captions and the Medal of Honor Appendix. Both Mrs. Kerns and Ms. Renfrow painstakingly inserted the multitudinous entries for the index, carefully checking the index against the text. Finally, Ms. Renfrow patiently and ably made the numerous revisions in the organization of the index. Mr. William S. Hill provided technical direction for both the maps and insertion of the photographs. Ms. Evelyn A. Englander of the library was most helpful in obtaining publications. The Archives staff (under the direction of Fred J. Graboske and his predecessor, Ms. Joyce Bonnett), especially Ms. Joyce M. Hudson and Ms. Amy C. Cohen, cheerfully made their resources available, as did Art Curator John T Dyer, Jr. The Reference Section under Danny J. Crawford was always most cooperative, especially Ms. Lena M. Kaljot, who assisted in the duplication of most of the photographs. A special thanks goes to Lieutenant Colonel Leon Craig, Jr., Head of the Support Branch; his administrative officer, First Lieutenant Mark R. Schroeder; and his enlisted Marines, especially Staff Sergeant Myrna A. Thomas and Corporal Juan E. Johnson, who assisted in that last push for publication.
Both Mr. Struder and Mr. Hill adroitly handled the liaison with the Typography and Design Division of the U.S. Government Printing Office in the layout of the book. Mr. Struder deftly and professionally assisted in the reading of page proofs and Mr. Hill meticulously monitored the preparation of charts and maps. The authors also appreciate the efforts of Mr. Nicholas M. Freda and Mr. Lee Nance of the Typography and Design Division, Mr. Freda for his careful layout of text and Mr. Nance for the final preparation of all maps and charts.
Finally, the authors want to acknowledge the contributions of former members of the Histories Section who reviewed and commented on several chapters, including Lieutenant Colonels Lane Rogers and Gary D. Solis, Majors George R. Dunham, Charles D. Melson, and Edward F. Wells, and Dr. V. Keith Fleming, Jr.
Special mention and most heartfelt thanks go to various interns who have assisted with the preparation of this volume. Naval Academy Midshipman Third Class Thomas Moninger, who prepared the Chronology of Events, and Maderia School students Ms. Jaime Koepsell and Ms. Sylvia Bunyasi who drafted the initial Command and Staff list. Marine Sergeant Neil A. Peterson, a student at the Citadel, sketched over half of the draft maps used in this volume. James E. Cypher, a senior at Loyola University, in New Orleans, assisted in the tedious but most important final editing of the index. Finally, there was Peter M. Yarbo, who as a student at Johns Hopkins, for over a year, once a week, took the early morning train from Baltimore to Washington, to assist with the project. Peter prepared several of the charts in the appendices, but even more significantly, he did almost all of the photographic research, saw that the photos were duplicated, and made the initial selection of photographs, organizing them by chapter. This book could never have been published at this time without his specific assistance and that of the other interns.
The authors are also indebted to Dr. Douglas Pike, who opened up his Indochina Archives, then located at the Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California, Berkeley, for their examination. Mr. Robert J. Destatte, Defense Prisoner of War and Missing Personnel Office, U.S. Department of Defense, provided a translation of several published Vietnamese documents. Finally our thanks to those who contributed comments on the draft and to our colleagues in the other Defense historical offices, who assisted with their advice and comments. In the end, however, the authors alone assume sole responsibility for the content of the text, including opinions expressed and any errors in fact.
Table of ContentsForeword iii Preface v Table of Contents vii Map Listing xiii PART I PRE-TET 1968 1 Chapter 1 A Puzzling War 2 III MAF January 1968 2 MACV and Command Arrangements 3 South Vietnam and I Corps 6 The Enemy 9 Focus on the North 11 MACV Vis-a-Vis Marines 12 An Ambivalent Outlook 15 Chapter 2 The 3d Marine Division and the Barrier 18 The 3d Marine Division in the DMZ 18 The Barrier 21 Chapter 3 The War in the Eastern DMZ in Early and Mid-January 32 The NVA in the DMZ Sector 32 Operation Napoleon 37 Kentucky Operations and the Barrier 40 Operation Lancaster and Heavy Fighting in Mid-January 52 Chapter 4 Khe Sanh: Building Up 58 The Battlefield 58 The Early Days 59 Protecting the Investment 61 The Isolation of Khe Sanh 61 The Decision to Hold 65 The Stage is Set 68 Sortie to Hill 881 North 70 The Enemy Plan Unfolds 72 Chapter 5 The 3d Division War in Southern Quang Tri and Northern Thua Thien, Operations Osceola and Neosho 73 Protecting the Quang Tri Base, Operation Osceola, 1-20 January 1968 73 Operation Neosho and Operations in the CoBi-Thanh Tan, 1-20 January 1968 78 Operation Checkers 83 Chapter 6 Heavy Fighting and Redeployment: The War in Central and Southern I Corps, January 1968 84 A Time of Transition 84 The Da Nang TAOR 88 Operation Auburn: Searching the Go Noi 91 A Busy Night at Da Nang 97 Continuing Heavy Fighting and Increasing Uncertainty 99 Phu Loc Operations 101 The Formation and Deployment of Task Force X-Ray 105 The Cavalry Arrives 107 The Changed Situation in the North 109 PART II THE "TET OFFENSIVE" 112 Chapter 7 The Enemy Offensive in the DMZ and Southern Quang Tri, 20 January-8 February 113 The Cua Viet is Threatened 113 Adjustment of Forces in Southern Quang Tri Province 118 Heavy Fighting Along the DMZ 119 A Lull in Leatherneck Square 126 The Cua Viet Continues to Heat Up 127 The Battle For Quang Tri City 133 Tet Aftermath Along the DMZ 137 Chapter 8 The Tet Offensive at Da Nang 141 Allied Dispositions 141 The Enemy Plans His Offensive 142 The Attack 144 The Fighting Continues 149 A Brief Lull and Renewed Fighting 158 Chapter 9 The Struggle for Hue-The Battle Begins 164 The Two Faces of Hue 164 The NVA Attack 164 Redeployment at Phu Bai and Marines Go to Hue 168 Chapter 10 The Struggle for Hue-The Second Phase 175 More Reinforcements 175 The Beginning of the Advance 3-4 February 180 Block by Block 5-8 February 185 Chapter 11 The Struggle for Hue-Stalemate in the Old City 192 A Faltering Campaign 192 Going Into the Walled City 194 The Fight for the Tower 199 Continuing the Advance 201 Chapter 12 The Struggle for Hue-The Taking of the Citadel and Aftermath 204 The Struggle in the Western Citadel 204 An Estimate of the Situation and Mounting the Offensive 205 Closing Out Operation Hue City 211 A Summing Up 213 PART III AFTER TET, KHE SAHN, AND MINI-TET 224 Chapter 13 Post-Tet in I Corps 225 The Immediate Ramifications of the Tet Offensive 225 Readjustment in I Corps 227 Readjustments in the U.S. I Corps Command Structure 235 Planning for the Future 241 March Operations in the DMZ Sector 241 March Operations in the Rest of I Corp 246 Regaining the Initiative 250 Chapter 14 The Siege of Khe Sanh 255 Digging In 255 Opening Moves 258 "Incoming!" 260 The Fall of Khe Sanh Village 261 Reinforcement and Fighting Back 264 Round Two 269 The Fall of Lang Vei 273 The Intensifying Battle 277 Settling the Score 282 Operation Pegasus 283 Chapter 15 The Battle for Dong Ha 291 Why Dong Ha? 291 The Fight for Dai Do, The First Day 293 The Continuing Fight for Dai Do 299 The End of the First Offensive 304 The Second Offensive 307 Chapter 16 Khe Sanh: Final Operations and Evacuation 16 April-11 July 1968 312 To Stay or Not to Stay 312 The "Walking Dead" 313 Operation Scotland II 316 Operation Robin 319 Razing Khe Sanh: Operation Charlie 323 Chapter 17 Mini-Tet and its Aftermath in Southern I Corps 328 Going into the Go Noi 328 Mini-Tet and Operation Mameluke Thrust, May 1968 336 Operation Allen Brook Continues 339 Mameluke Thrust Also Continues 343 PART IV THE WAR CONTINUES: OFFENSIVE AND COUNTER-OFFENSIVE 350 Chapter 18 3d Division Takes the Offensive 351 The Enemy Situation 351 The Offensive Takes Shape 351 The Eastern DMZ 357 The Pressure Continues 359 Into the Western Mountains 364 Southern Quang Tri and Thua Thien 370 Chapter 19 The Third Offensive: Da Nang 373 Indicators 373 The Storm Breaks 375 Counterattack 379 Pursuit 381 Typhoon Bess 383 Chapter 20 Autumn Offensive Halted 385 A New Orientation 385 The Eastern DMZ 386 Defeat of the 320th Division 396 Coastal Quang Tri and Thua Thien: A Shift 410 Chapter 21 Counteroffensive Operations in Southern ICTZ 414 The Situation in September 414 Operation Maui Peak 418 The End of Mameluke Thrust and Renewed Attacks on Da Nang 423 Operation Meade River 425 Operation Taylor Common 437 Chapter 22 The 3d Division's Labors Bear Fruit 443 Elimination of the Infrastructure 443 Rough Soldiering 450 Thua Thien and the End of the Year 455 PART V SUPPORTING THE TROOPS 457 Chapter 23 Marine Air at the Beginning of the Year and Air Support of Khe Sanh 458 Marine Air at the Beginning of the Year 458 Marine Control of Air 465 Proposed Changes in Command and Control over Marine Air; Operation Niagara, January 1968 471 Operation Niagara and Air Resupply in the Defense of Khe Sanh 475 Chapter 24 A Matter of Doctrine: Marine Air and Single Manager 487 The Establishment of Single Manager 487 Point, Counterpoint 497 The Continuing Debate 509 Chapter 25 A Question of Helicopters 516 Another Debate 516 The Need for Lighter Aircraft 519 To Keep the Mediums and Heavies Flying 522 Another Look at Helicopter Air-Ground Relations 526 Chapter 26 Artillery and Reconnaissance Support in III MAF 533 Marine Artillery Reshuffles 533 The Guns in the North 537 Mini-Tet and the Fall of Ngog Tavak and Kham Duc 541 Operations Drumfire II and Thor-Guns Across the Border 543 Fire Base Tactics 548 Marine Reconnaissance Operations 552 Chapter 27 Manpower Policies and Realities 557 Personnel Turnover 557 The Quality Issue and Project 100,000 559 Training 561 The Search for Junior Leaders 562 Discipline 565 Morale 566 The Aviation Shortage 569 Filling the Ranks in Vietnam: Too Many Billets, Too Few Marines 571 The Deployment of Regimental Landing Team 27 572 Reserve Callup? 574 The Bloodiest Month, The Bloodiest Year 575 Foxhole Strength: Still Too Few Marines 576 The Return of RLT 27 578 The End of the Year 579 The Marine Corps and the Draft 580 The Marine Corps Transformed 581 Chapter 28 Backing Up The Troops 582 A Division of Responsibility 582 Naval Logistic Support 586 Marine Engineers 588 The FLC Continues to Cope 592 PART VI OTHER PERSPECTIVES: PACIFICATION AND MARINES OUTSIDE OF III MAF 595 Chapter 29 Pacification 596 Prelude 596 The Tet Offensives and Operation Recovery 604 III MAF and Pacification 607 Homicide in the Countryside 614 Changing Attitudes 616 The Boys Next Door: The Combined Action Program 617 The Accelerated Pacification Plan 630 Chapter 30 Outside of III MAF: The Special Landing Forces, Marine Advisors, and Others 631 The 9th MAB and the SLFs 631 Sub-Unit 1, 1st Air and Naval Gunfire Liaison Company (ANGLICO) 639 Embassy Marines 642 Individual Marines in Saigon and Elsewhere in Vietnam 644 Chapter 31 1968: An Overview 652 NOTES 655 APPENDICES A: Marine Command and Staff List, 1 January-31 December 1968 713 B: Chronology of Significant Events, January-December 1968 722 C: Glossary of Terms and Abbreviations 728 D: Medals of Honor Citations, 1968 735 E: Distribution of Personnel 745 F: Combined Action Program Expansion-1968 753 G: NVA/VC Casualties Reported by III MAF Units 756 H: Marine Aircraft, Support and Ordnance 760 I: List of Reviewers 761 J: Tables of Organization 764 INDEX 775 Map Listing Reference Map, I Corps Tactical Zone xiv Allied Headquarters, January 1968 9 3d Marine Division Areas of Operation and the Strong Point Obstacle System 22 Enemy Order of Battle DMZ/Quang Tri Province 33 Major Enemy Units in Northern Quang Tri, January 1968 36 Unit Headquarters in Quang Tri Province 43 Allied and Enemy Units in the Khe Sanh Area, January 1968 71 Operations Osceola and Neosho, January 1968 77 1st Marine Division Area of Operations, Da Nang, January 1968 88 Operation Auburn, Go Noi Island, December 1967-January 1968 96 Phu Loc, 1 January 1968 102 Task Force X-Ray, 15 January 1968 108 Badger Catch/Saline Area of Operations, January 1968 114 Clearing of Route 9, 24-29 January 1968 121 The Enemy Offensive in the DMZ & Southern Quang Tri, 20 January-8 February 1968 135 Tet Offensive at Da Nang, 30 January-February, 1968 150 The Fight for Hue, 31 January-February 1968 165 Task Force X-Ray, 31 January 1968 170 Copy of Briefing Map and Commentary (Hue) 196 2/5 Area of Operations, 24-27 February 1968 212 Post Tet in I Corps, 1968 226 Marine and Allied Units at Khe Sanh, February 1968 262 Allied and Enemy Positions, 30 April 1968, in and around Dai Do 295 3/7 Participation in Operation Allen Brook, 15May-18 May 1968 331 17 May 1968, Le Nam (1) NVA Ambush 332 Operation Mameluke Thrust, May 1968 336 The Third Offensive, Da Nang Area Operations, August 1968 374 Fire Support Bases in Northwestern Quang Tri 400 Photocopy of III MAF Briefing Map (Nov-Dec1968) 415 Operation Maui Peak, Opening Moves, 6 October 1968 418 Meade River AO, 20 November-9 December 1968 425 Operation Taylor Common, December 1968 438 Fire Support Bases in Southwestern Quang Tri 450 Photocopy of Northern I Corps Briefing Map(Nov-Dec 1968) 454 Page 0 (1968: The Defining Year)